Doç. Dr. Mustafa TÖZÜN Esafed - PDF

Doç. Dr. Mustafa TÖZÜN Esafed Strategic Management Strategic management: is the health institution monitoring the changes and developments that take place in the external surroundings, analyzing

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Doç. Dr. Mustafa TÖZÜN Esafed Strategic Management Strategic management: is the health institution monitoring the changes and developments that take place in the external surroundings, analyzing them, and assessing them. Strategies Are applied in the order below; 1) Directional strategies 2) Adaptive strategies 3) Strategies for entering a market 4) Position strategies 5) Operational strategies 1. Directional Strategies The most general strategy. Determines the essential direction of the institution. Mission (Who are we? Why do we exist?) and vision (what should we be?) are determined. 2) Adaptive strategies a) Growth strategies: The best strategies that serve to realize the mission and succeed in the vision. a1) Diversification a2) Vertical Integration a3) Market Development a4) Product/Service Development) a5) Penetration a1) Diversification Entering a New market. (Relevant type: a hospital starting home treatment services, etc. Irrelevant type: the hospital opening a cafeteria, etc.) a2) Vertical Integration Retroactive vertical integration: The health institution starting to produce the input it uses (purpose: to take the patient flow to various institutions and departments under supervision) Proactive vertical integration: The health institution growing towards customers and providing new services. (a hospital establishing a long-term care unit, etc.) a3) Market Development The health institution entering a new market with the existing products and services. Purpose: To increase the amount of services being provided. a4) Product/Services Development The provision of new products and services that supplement existing products and services. Also the development of existing products and services. For example, a maternity hospital starting to provide birth control services. a5) Penetration The presentation of better services to the existing market, with existing products and services. Purpose: to increase production and the market share. Focuses on promotion, distribution, pricing and introduction (human relations). b) Contract Strategies Includes compacting the quantity and scopes of the activites being conducted. b1) Divestiture: The sales of service units. b2) Liquidation: Purchasing an x-ray machine with new technology and selling the old one, etc. b3) Harvesting: Retreating in an orderly and planned way from a market in which demand has decreased. b4) Retrenchment): Includes the redefinition of the market, reduction of costs and decreasing some assets. Reduction in personnel, ceasing the production of some products/services, narrowing the served region. c) Stability Strategies The old strategies that are continued with a few minor changes if the existing conditions are suitable. c1) Work development strategy: includes the application of quality programs like total quality management. c2) Maintaining the Situation: The purpose is to maintain market share in a market that has intense competition. 3) Strategies for entering the market 3. 1) Purchasing strategy 3. 2) Cooperation strategy 3.3) Development strategy 3.1) Purchasing Strategy Allows an institution to enter a market rapidly, using its financial resources. - Acquisition: One health institution purchasing part or all of another institution. - Purchasing license rights (licensing): Instead of preparing software that is part of an integrated information system, a hospital may purchase the software licenses of institutions that have specialized in this subject. - Supporting Investments: Involves a health institution investing in newly developing smaller institutions. 3. 2) Cooperation Strategy Sometimes cooperation is preferred to competition. - Merging (marriage): Two or more health institutions merge. - Establishing Alliance: Actions are made jointly in some subjects (like purchasing materials) with other institutions. - Joint Venture: Two or more health institutions undertake high cost and risk projects together (jointly). This is a risk sharing method. 3.3) Development Strategy -Internal Development: New products/services are developed using the institution s existing structure and personnel. - Internal Venture: Involves the establishment of a relatively independent new department inside the institution. This is a strategy that is used when the new products/services are not related to the existing products/services. 4. Positional Strategies After the adapting and entering the market strategies, it is necessary to determine position in terms of competition. - Cost leadership strategy - Differentiation strategy - Focus strategy Cost leadership strategy To be able to produce products and services at lower cost compared to the competition, To be able to provide them at a lower price. Differentiation strategy To render the institution s products and services unique in the market. For example, adding laser technology to be able to perform cataract surgeries. Focus strategy The objective is to focus on the needs of certain customer groups (like the high income group) rather than the whole market. A HEALTH INSTITUTION CAN ACHIEVE A GOOD PLACE IN THE MARKET BY USING A FOCUS STRATEGY FOR PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION AND COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES. Assessing strategies Many different techniques are used in the assessment of strategies. Two of these are: - SWOT Analysis - Boston Consulting Group Growth Sharing Matrix SWOT Analysis It is necessary to determine the institution s strong and weak points in order to protect against threats and utilize resources SWOT S (Strengths): The institution s strong points W (Weaknesses): The institution s weak points O (Opportunities): Surrounding opportunities T (Threats): Surrounding threats SWOT Analysis Matrix Institutional Dimension Strong points Weak points Surrou ndings Opport unities PROMISING INTERNAL STABILIZATION Dimen sions Threats EXTERNAL STABILIZATION STRUGGLE FOR LIFE Internal Stabilization There are weak points in the institution and opportunities in the surroundings. Strategies are in 2 stages: 1) Strategies to resolve their own weaknesses (for example, selling assets, making savings, etc.) 2) Strategies towards surrounding opportunities (business development, market development, product development, vertical integration, relevant diversification, etc.) External Stabilization The institution is strong, there are surrounding threats. The strategy is determined to maximize strong points and minimize threats. For example, relevant diversification, irrelevant diversification, market development, product development and maintaining the situation, etc. Promising The institution is strong, there are surrounding opportunities. Growth strategies must be applied. Struggle for Life The institution is weak, there are surrounding threats. Applicable strategies: - Irrelevant diversification, - Divestiture, - Selling assets, - Harvesting - And cost-saving strategies. Boston Consulting Group(BCG) Growth Sharing Matrix Deals with the relative market share and the market s growth rate. Relative market share: Shows the position of an establishment in relation to its strongest competitor. Relative market share= Institution s market share / Strongest competitor market share Relative Market Share 1 : The institution has the biggest share in the market. =1 : The institution s market share is equal to that of it s strongest competitor. 1 : The institution s market share is less than the share of its strongest competitor. The Market Growth Rate Calculated yearly. It is the rate of increase from the amount of services presented in the previous year. Market growth rate: (Vt-Vt-1)/ (Vt-1) According to BCG the normal Market growth rate is 10%. BCG Matrisi Relative Market share high 1 low Ma rke t gro wt h rat e high 0.1 STARS CASH COWS PROBLEM AREA DOGS low Problem area The institution is operating with a low market share in a market that is growing rapidly. Applicable strategies: - Market development - Product development - Harvesting - Divestiture - Selling assets Stars The institution is in a leading position in terms of market share in a rapidly growing market. Main applicable strategies: - Market development - Product development - Penetration - Vertical integration - Relevant diversification Cash Cows The institution has a large market share in a gradually growing market. Main applicable strategies : - Cost savings - Relevant diversification - Harvesting - Divestiture - Selling assets Dogs The institution has a small market share in a slowly growing market. Main applicable strategies: - Cost savings - Divestiture - Selling assets
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