Diversity of seaweeds and seagrasses of St. John’s Island, Singapore

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Diversity of seaweeds and seagrasses of St. John’s Island, Singapore

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  33 Contributions to Marine Science 2012 DIVERSITY OF SEAWEEDS AND SEAGRASSES OF ST. JOHN’S ISLAND, SINGAPORE Thidarat Noiraksar  Institute of Marine Science, Burapha University, Bangsaen, Chon Buri 20131, Thailand  Email: sargassum2005@yahoo.com Khanjanapaj Lewmanomont  Department of Fishery Biology, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University,Chatujak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand  Email: f    Þ  skpl@ku.ac.th Tan Koh Siang Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore18, Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119227. Email: tmstanks@nus.edu.sg  Joyce Ong Jia Lin Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore18 Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119227. Email: tmsojlj@nus.edu.sg   ABSTRACT  .  — The species diversity of seaweeds and seagrasses of St. John’s Island, Singapore was investigated by snorkeling during 5–7 October 2010. The specimens were collected from intertidal level seawards. Seventy-seven species in 50 genera and 29 families were reported, of which 2 species are blue-greens (Cyanophyta), 26 species are greens (Chlorophyta), 15 species are browns (Phaeophyceae) and 34 species are reds (Rhodophyta). Ten species of seaweeds are new records for the algal ß ora of Singapore: Ulva rigida  C. Agardh, Caulerpa microphysa  (Weber-van Bosse) Feldmann, Chlorodesmis caespitosa  J. Agardh, Spatoglossum schroederi  (C. Agardh) Kützing,  Jania ungulata  (Yendo) Yendo,  Hypnea cornuta  (Kützing) J. Agardh, Gracilaria chondracantha  (Kützing) Millar,  Antithamnionella breviramosa  (Dawson) Wollaston, Gayliella   Þ mbriata  (Setchell et   Gardner) Cho et Boo and  Anotrichium tenue  (C. Agardh) Nägeli. Three species of seagrasses,  Halophila minor   (Zollinger) den Hartog,  Halophila ovalis  (Brown) Hooker and Thalassia hemprichii  (Ehrenberg) Ascherson were also present.  KEY WORDS  .  — diversity, seaweeds, seagrasses, St. John’s Island, Singapore Contributions to Marine Science 2012: 33–47 Date of Publication: 29 Sep.2012 © National University of Singapore INTRODUCTION St. John’s Island is one of the ‘Southern Islands’ in Singapore. It is located approximately 6.5 km to the south of the main island of Singapore, in the Singapore Straits. There are two research facilities on the island, the Tropical Marine Science Institute (TMSI) and the Marine Aquaculture Centre (MAC), run by the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA) respectively. The northern coastlines of the island consist of man-made lagoons. In contrast, the southern shoreline is relatively steep, with natural rocky shores and coral reefs. There are two small patches of mangroves (http://www.tmsi.nus.edu.sg). These habitats have   high species biodiversity of marine life. Lee et al  . (2009) reported 40 algal species from intertidal reef ß ats, arti Þ cial structures and ß oating navigation buoys along the coast of Singapore, and included a previous checklist of marine algae species in Singapore; they composes of 17 species of blue-greens (Cyanophyta), 83 species of greens (Chlorophyta), 76 species of browns (Phaeophyceae) and 100 species of reds (Rhodophyta). Pham et al  . (2011) updated a checklist of the algae of Singapore, this checklist was compiled from many habitats such as marine, freshwater, brackish, terrestrial and subaerial; there are a total of 1,056 species, of which 225 species belong to Chlorophyta, 90 species of Cyanobacteria and 126 species of Rhodophyta. In this paper, we attempt to clarify diversity of seaweeds and seagrasses of St. John’s Island for supporting the database of the marine resources of Singapore.  34 Seaweeds and seagrasses of St John’s Island, Singapore MATERIAL AND METHODS The material for this study was collected at three sites on St. John’s Island: pontoon of main jetty (1°13' 20.91"N 103°50' 56.34"E); swimming lagoon of main jetty (1°13' 21.52"N 103°50' 49.78"E); and Marine Aquaculture Centre (1°12' 51.95"N 103°51' 01.74"E) (Fig. 1). The pontoon of the main jetty is attached with seaweeds near the surface on ß oating level. The swimming lagoon of the main jetty is a sandy beach with of dead coral fragments. Near the Marine Aquaculture Centre there is a large intertidal ß at, the substratum is composed of rock and dead coral with Þ ne to coarse sand. Seaweed and seagrass specimens were collected from intertidal level seawards by snorkeling during 5–7 October 2010. Specimens were cleaned and  preserved in sodium chloride. Some were subsequently dried and made into voucher herbarium specimens. The external morphology and internal structures, such as cells and reproductive characteristics of the specimens were studied. Specimens were sectioned by hand using a razor blade under a stereomicroscope and stained with 1% aniline blue, intensi Þ ed Fig. 1. Study sites on St. John’s Island, Singapore: A (Pontoon of main jetty); B (swimming lagoon of main jetty); C (Marine Aquaculture Centre).Fig. 2.  Ulva rigida : A. habit; B. margin with small teeth; C. transverse section of thallus showing two cells thick. Scale bars: A = 1 cm; B, C = 50 μ m. with 1% HCl and mounted on glass slides using 50 % Karo Syrup (Corn Products). Taxonomic identi Þ cation was made with the help of published keys and taxonomic references. All specimens are deposited in the Bangsaen Institute of Marine Science (BIMS) , Burapha University. RESULTS Seventy-seven species of 50 genera and 29 families were reported (Table 1), of which two species are blue-greens (Cyanophyta), 26 species are greens (Chlorophyta), 15 species are browns (Phaeophyceae) and 34 species are reds (Rhodophyta). Ten species of the seaweeds reported are new records for the algal flora of Singapore: Ulva rigida  C. Agardh  , Caulerpa microphysa  (Weber-van Bosse) Feldmann, Chlorodesmis caespitosa  J. Agardh, Spatoglossum schroederi  (C. Agardh) Kützing,  Jania ungulata  (Yendo) Yendo,  Hypnea cornuta  (Kützing) J. Agardh, Gracilaria chondracantha  (Kützing) Millar,  Antithamnionella breviramosa  (Dawson) Wollaston, Gayliella   Þ mbriata  (Setchell et Gardner) Cho et Boo and  Anotrichium tenue  (C. Agardh) Nägeli. TAXONOMYORDER ULVALESULVACEAE Ulva rigida  C. Agardh   1823 (Fig. 2)  Homotypic Synonym(s) .    —     Phycoseris rigida  (C. Agardh) Kützing 1843; Ulva lactuca var. rigida  (C. Agardh) Le Jolis 1863 Type locality .  — Cádiz, Spain (Silva et al., 1996).  35 Contributions to Marine Science 2012 Table 1. Seaweeds and seagrasses of St. John’s Island, Singapore. New records are indicated with asterisk (*). Location: A= Pontoon of main jetty, B= Swimming lagoon of main jetty, C= Marine Aquaculture Centre. Taxa Location  A B C Division: Cyanophyta (blue green algae)Class: CyanophyceaeSubclass OscillatoriophycideaeOrder: NostocalesFamily: Oscillatoriaceae  Lyngbya majuscula  (Dillwyn) Harvey l l  Plectonema spp. l Division: Chlorophyta (green algae)Class: SiphonocladophyceaeOrder: UlvalesFamily: Ulvaceae Ulva clathrata  (Roth) C. Agardh l Ulva rigida  C. Agardh* l Order: CladophoralesFamily: Cladophoraceae Cladophora vagabunda  (Linnaeus) Hoek l Cladophora  spp. l   l Chaetomorpha linum  (Müller) Kützing l   l Order: SiphonocladalesFamily: Boodleaceae  Phyllodictyon anastomosans  (Harvey) Kraft et Wynne l Family: Siphonocladaceae  Boergesenia forbesii  (Harvey) Feldmann l   l Family: Valoniaceae Valonia aegagropila C. Agardh l   l Class: BryopsidophyceaeOrder: BryopsidalesFamily: Bryopsidaceae  Bryopsis corymbosa   J. Agardh l   l   l  Bryopsis pennata  Lamouroux l   l  Bryopsis pennata  var.  secunda (Harvey) Collins et Hervey l Family: Caulerpaceae Caulerpa mexicana  Sonder ex Kützing l Caulerpa microphysa  (Weber-van Bosse) Feldmann* l l Caulerpa peltata Lamouroux l Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh l Caulerpa   taxifolia  (Vahl) C. Agardh l Caulerpa sertularioides  (Gmelin) Howe l Caulerpa serrulata  (Forsskål) J. Agardh l   l Family: Codiaceae Codium geppiorum  Schmidt l Family Halimedaceae  Halimeda opuntia  (Linnaeus) Lamouroux l Family: Udoteaceae  Avrainvillea lacerata  Harvey ex J. Agardh l  Avrainvillea obscura  (C. Agardh) J. Agardh l Chlorodesmis caespitosa  J. Agardh* l  Rhipidosiphon javensis  Montagne l Class: DasycladophyceaeOrder: DasycladalesFamily: Dasycladaceae  Bornetella oligospora  Solms-Laubach l  Neomeris vanbosseae  Howe l   l  36 Seaweeds and seagrasses of St John’s Island, Singapore Table 1. Cont'd. Taxa Location  A B C Division: Ochrophyta (brown algae)Class: PhaeophyceaeOrder: DictyotalesFamily: Dictyotaceae  Dictyota bartayresiana  Lamouroux l  Dictyota ciliolata  Sonder ex Kützing l  Dictyopteris delicatula  Lamouroux l  Dictyopteris sp. l  Lobophora variegata  (Lamouroux) Womersley ex Oliveira l   l  Padina antillarum  (Kützing) Piccone l   l  Padina australis  Hauck l   l Spatoglossum schroederi  (C. Agardh) Kützing* l Order EctocarpalesFamily Acinetosporaceae  Hincksia   sp. l Family: Sargassaceae  Hormophysa cuneiformis  (Gmelin) Silva l Sargassum binderi  Sonder l Sargassum glaucescens  J. Agardh l   l Sargassum polycystum  C. Agardh l   l Sargassum siliquosum  J. Agardh l Sargassum spp. l   l Division: Rhodophyta (red algae)Class: FlorideophyceaeSubclass: CorallinophycidaeOrder: CorallinalesFamily: Corallinaceae  Amphiroa fragilissima  (Linnaeus) Lamouroux l  Amphiroa spp. l  Jania ungulata  (Yendo) Yendo* l Subclass: RhodymeniophycidaeOrder: GigartinalesFamily: Hypneaceae  Hypnea cornuta  (Kützing) J. Agardh* l  Hypnea pannosa  J. Agardh l   l  Hypnea    spinella  (C. Agardh) Kützing l Family: Rhizophyllidacene' ''  Portieria hornemannii  (Lyngbye) Silva l Order: GracilarialesFamily: Gracilariaceae Gracilaria chondracantha  (Kützing) Millar    * l Gracilaria minuta  Lewmanomont l Gracilaria salicornia (C. Agardh) Dawson l   l Gracilaria  spp. l  Hydropuntia edulis  (Gmelin) Gurgel et Fredericq l   l   l  Hydropuntia spp. l   l Family: Peyssonneliaceae  Peyssonnelia  sp. l   l Order : HalymenialesFamily: Halymeniaceae Grateloupia  sp. l  Halymenia maculata  J. Agardh l Order: Ceramiales  37 Contributions to Marine Science 2012  Distribution .  —    Japan (Yoshida & Yoshinaga, 2010), Taiwan (Anonymous, 2012), Philippines (Silva et al., 1987), Thailand (Pongparadon et al.,   2008).  Specimen examined  .  — BIMS-PA0331 (Marine Aquaculture Centre, 7 Oct.2010).  Description .  —    Thalli thin, sheet-like, tufts or solitary  blades, variable in shape, to 1.5–2.0 cm in height. Blades ruf  ß ed or ß at, with small microscopic teeth on margins. Blades unperforated or perforated, with few to many small holes. Blades two cells thick; two layers not easily separated into single cell layers. Holdfasts comprised of small, tough rhizoids. Bright grass green to dark green, gold at margins when reproductive. May be colourless when stressed. ORDER BRYOPSIDALESCAULERPACEAE Caulerpa microphysa   (Weber-van Bosse) Feldmann 1955 (Fig. 3)  Homotypic Synonym(s) .    —    Caulerpa racemosa  f. microphysa  Weber-van Bosse 1898; Caulerpa racemosa  var. microphysa  (Weber-van Bosse) Reinke 1900 Type locality .  — Makassar (Ujung Pandang), Celebes, Indonesia (Silva et al., 1996).  Distribution .  — Japan (Yoshida et al., 1990; Yoshida, 1998), Taiwan (Anonymous, 2012), Indonesia (Silva et al., 1996), Table 1. Cont'd. Taxa Location  A B C Family: Callithamniaceae  Aglaothamnion   spp. l   l Family: Ceramiaceae  Antithamnionella breviramosa  (Dawson) Wollaston* l  Antithamnionella  sp. l Centroceras clavulatum  (C. Agardh) Montagne l Ceramium sp. l Gayliella   Þ mbriata  (Setchell et Gardner) Cho et Boo* l Gayliella   ß  accida  (Harvey ex Kützing) Cho et McIvor l   l Family: Rhodomelaceae  Acanthophora spicifera  (Vahl) Børgesen l   l Chondria sp. l   l  Leveillea jungermannioides  (Hering et Mertens) Harvey l  Lophocladia  sp. l  Polysiphonia  sp. l  Palisada perforata  (Bory de St.-Vincent) Nam l Family   Wrangeliaceae  Anotrichium tenue  (C. Agardh) Nägeli* l Order: GelidialesFamily: Gelidiaceae  Pterocladiella   capillacea  (Gmelin) Santelices et Hommersand l Family: Gelidiellaceae Gelidiella acerosa  (Forsskål) Feldmann et Hamel l Order: RhodymenialesFamily: Champiaceae Champia parvula  (C. Agardh) Harvey l Subclass: NemaliophycidaeOrder: NemalialesFamily: Galaxauraceae Galaxaura rugosa  (Ellis et Solander) Lamouroux l Division TrachaeophytaClass MonocotyledoneaeOrder AlismatalesFamily Hydrocharitaceae  Halophila minor   (Zollinger) den Hartog l   l  Halophila ovalis  (Brown) Hooker l Thalassia hemprichii  (Ehrenberg) Ascherson l
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