Coaching Youth: Meeting the Challenge, Raising our Games Jean Côté, Ph.D, Queen s University - PDF

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Coaching Youth: Meeting the Challenge, Raising our Games Jean Côté, Ph.D, Queen s University A Development Framework for Sport Influences Developmental Activities Growth of Personal Assets Outcomes Environment

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Coaching Youth: Meeting the Challenge, Raising our Games Jean Côté, Ph.D, Queen s University A Development Framework for Sport Influences Developmental Activities Growth of Personal Assets Outcomes Environment Individual Characteristics Social Agents Youth/Adult driven Instrumental/ Intrinsic Competence Confidence Connection Character Participation Performance Personal Development TIME Influences Individual characteristics: physical attributes, mental characteristics, age, gender, etc. Social agents: coaches, teachers, parents, siblings, peers, teams, etc. Environment: policies, access to facilities, equipment, communities, clubs, etc. A Development Framework for Sport Influences Developmental Activities Growth of Personal Assets Outcomes Environment Individual Characteristics Social Agents Youth or Adult driven Instrumental or Intrinsic Competence Confidence Connection Character Participation Performance Personal Development TIME Developmental Activities 1. Youth-driven or adult-driven 2. Instrumental or intrinsic value (Côté, Erickson, & Abernethy, in press) Youth-Driven Activities 1. Intrinsic value: Deliberate play or pick-up games 2. Instrumental: Spontaneous practice - activities structured by youth with the goal of improving performance outside of a formal training program Adult-Driven Activities 1. Instrumental: Deliberate practice 2. Intrinsic value: Play Practice or Teaching games for understanding 3. Mix of instrumental and intrinsic value: Organized competition RATIONAL LEARNING Prototype Activity: Deliberate Practice Instrumentality Adults Organized Competition EMOTIONAL LEARNING Prototype Activity: Play Practice Intrinsic Values INFORMAL LEARNING Prototype Activity: Spontaneous Practice Youth CREATIVE LEARNING Prototype Activity: Deliberate Play A Development Framework for Sport Influences Developmental Activities Growth of Personal Assets Outcomes Environment Individual Characteristics Social Agents Youth or Adult driven Instrumental or Intrinsic Competence Confidence Connection Character Participation Performance Personal Development TIME Growth of Personal Assets 1. Competence: Positive view of one s action in sport. Learning sport specific skills, competing, and performing. 2. Confidence: An internal sense of positive self-worth in sport. 3. Connection: Positive bonds with people and institutions in the sport environment. 4. Character: Respect for rules, integrity, empathy for others. (Côté, Bruner, Erickson, Strachan, & Fraser-Thomas, 2010; Jelicic, Bobek, Phelps, Lerner, & Lerner, 2008; Lerner, 2004) A Development Framework for Sport Influences Developmental Activities Growth of Personal Assets Outcomes Environment Individual Characteristics Social Agents Youth/Adult driven Instrumental/ Intrinsic Competence Confidence Connection Character Participation Performance Personal Development TIME Outcomes 1. Performance: Develop motor skills for future elite athletes. 2. Participation: Improve physical health and continued participation. 3. Personal Development: Contribute to positive youth development and developmental assets such as discipline, self-control, leadership, cooperation. Côté & Fraser-Thomas, 2007 A Development Framework for Sport Influences Developmental Activities Growth of Personal Assets Outcomes Environment Individual Characteristics Social Agents Youth or adult driven Instrumental or Intrinsic Competence Confidence Connection Character Participation Performance Personal Development TIME A Development Framework for Sport Influences Developmental Activities Growth of Personal Assets Outcomes Environment Individual Characteristics Social Agents Youth or adult driven Instrumental or Intrinsic Competence Confidence Connection Character Participation Performance Personal Development TIME Environment: The Birthplace Effect The city size where youth gain their first experiences in sport may potentially have a significant influence on their future Performance and Participation in sport, and Personal development through sport. Big Cities 1. Optimal facility resources (arenas, golf courses, fields) 2. Specialized coaching 3. Formal sport settings (practices, games) 4. Adult supervision required 5. Sport is played with individuals of similar age, size, and ability 6. Push towards year-long participation in one sport Smaller Cities 1. Facilities may not be optimal. 2. Casual coaching 3. Formal and informal sport settings 4. Not always required 5. Variability in players age, size, and ability 6. Seasonal sports more common Environment: The Birthplace Effect 1. Do a greater proportion of elite athletes come from small cities or big cities (Performance)? 2. Is youth sport participation higher in small cities or big cities (Participation)? 3. Are there differences in the developmental assets of youth sport participants in small cities and big cities (Personal development)? Methods Participants Total: 4,397 professional athletes Hockey: 549 Canadian Males, 151 American Male Baseball: 907 American Males Basketball: 436 American Males Golf: 197 Americans Males; 112 American Females American Football: 1,969 American Males Soccer: 76 American Females (Côté, MacDonald, Baker, & Abernethy, 2006; MacDonald, Cheung, Côté, & Abernethy, 2009; MacDonald, King, Côté & Abernethy, 2009) Methods Birthplace (city and state/province) recorded from official websites Distributions compared to census proportions Canadian hockey compared to 1976 census U.S. sports compared to 1980 census Odds ratios were calculated across the different city sizes for the U.S. and Canadian data The odds ratios were calculated by dividing the odds of becoming a professional athlete in each city size bracket by the odds of being born in a specific city size. U.S. Ice Hockey (n=151) City size U.S. Pop (%) NHL(%) O.R. (C.I) _ 5,000, (.16, -.04) 2,500,000 4,999, (.24,.19) 1,000,000 2,499, (.18,.13) 500, , (.51,.49) 250, , (1.17, 1.16) 100, , (2.05, 2.05) 50,000 99, (18.70, 18.70) 50, (1.79, 1.79) U.S. Baseball (n=907) City size U.S. Pop (%) MLB (%) O.R. (C.I) _ 5,000, (.18,.15) 2,500,000 4,999, (.23,.21) 1,000,000 2,499, (.15,.12) 500, , (.54,.54) 250, , (1.24, 1.24) 100, , (2.04, 2.04) 50,000 99, (20.82, 20.82) 50, (1.69, 1.69) U.S. Basketball (n=436) City size U.S. Pop (%) NBA(%) O.R. (C.I) _ 5,000, (.38,.36) 2,500,000 4,999, (.56,.55) 1,000,000 2,499, (.34,.33) 500, , (.96,.95) 250, , (1.50, 1.49) 100, , (1.80, 1.80) 50,000 99, (10.86, 10.86) 50, (1.10, 1.09) U.S. Football (n=1,969) City size U.S. Pop (%) NFL (%) O.R. (C.I) _ 5,000, (.38, -.37) 2,500,000 4,999, (.21,.19) 1,000,000 2,499, (.18,.17) 500, , (.67,.67) 250, , (1.08, 1.07) 100, , (1.37, 1.37) 50,000 99, (10.79, 10.79) 50, (2.77, 2.77) U.S. Golf (n=197) City size U.S. Pop (%) PGA (%) O.R. (C.I) _ 5,000, (.16, -.08) 2,500,000 4,999, (.14,.01) 1,000,000 2,499, (.18, -.13) 500, , (.88,.87) 250, , (1.64, 1.63) 100, , (1.47, 1.46) 50,000 99, (11.18, 11.18) 50, (2.35, 2.34) U.S. Women s Golf (n=112) City size U.S. Pop (%) LPGA (%) O.R. (C.I) 5,000, (.16, -.05) 2,500,000 4,999, (.18,.09) 1,000,000 2,499, (.16,.09) 500, , (.77,.76) 250, , (.89,.87) 100, , (1.46, 1.45) 50,000 99, (27.2, 27.2) 50, (1.74, 1.73) U.S. Women s Soccer (n=76) City size U.S. Pop (%) WUSA (%) O.R. (C.I) 5,000, (.15,.09) 2,500,000 4,999, (.0,.0) 1,000,000 2,499, (.0,.0) 500, , (1.59, 1.59) 250, , (1.23, 1.22) 100, , (2.32, 2.31) 50,000 99, (6.33, 6.33) 50, (1.92, 1.92) Birthplace and Performance: Other Studies Supportive: Curtis & Birch, 1987 (Canadian professional ice hockey players) Carlson, 1988 (Swedish professional tennis players) Abernethy & Farrow, 2004 (Australian professional team sport athletes) Baker & Logan, 2007 (Canadian junior hockey players) Lidor, Côté, Arnon, Zeev, & Cohen-Maoz 2010 (team sports athletes from Israel) Bruner, MacDonald, Pickett, & Côté, 2011 (ice hockey players from Finland, Sweden, USA, and Canada) Birthplace and Performance: Other Studies Mixed support: Schorer, Baker, Lotz & Büsch, 2008 (German youth elite handball players) Baker, Schorer, Cobley, Schimmer, & Wattie, in press (Olympic athletes from Canada, USA, UK, and Germany) Environment: The Birthplace Effect 1. Do a greater proportion of elite athletes come from small cities or big cities (Performance)? 2. Is youth sport participation higher in small cities or big cities (Participation)? 3. Are there differences in the developmental assets of youth sport participants in small cities and big cities (Personal development)? Birthplace and Participation Sample of 146, 424 Canadian male youth hockey players Born between Age range: 8-16 years Registered with the Ontario Hockey Federation seasons The relationship between city of development and youth hockey participation. Turnnidge, Hancock, & Côté, in preparation Results City Size ONT Pop (%) OHF (%) OR (CI) , , , , ,000-99, ,000-49, ,000-24, Birthplace and Participation Canada General Social Survey (2005) Sample: 3,112 children ages 5 to 14 Definition of sport participation: Sports that one regularly participated in (at least once a week) during the previous 12 months (Clark, 2008) Birthplace and Participation Lower participation in Canada s three largest cities Toronto, Montréal, and Vancouver = 47% Towns between 10,000 and 50,000 = 58% (Clark, 2008) Environment: The Birthplace Effect 1. Do a greater proportion of elite athletes come from small cities or big cities (Performance)? 2. Is youth sport participation higher in small cities or big cities (Participation)? 3. Are there differences in the developmental assets of youth sport participants in small cities and big cities (Personal development)? Birthplace and Developmental Assets 181 swimmers 108 from cities with populations of over 500, from cities with populations of under 500,000 Developmental assets questionnaire (Fraser-Thomas, Côté, & MacDonald, 2010) Birthplace and Developmental Assets 58-item questionnaire (Search Institute, 2004) Assesses adolescents developmental assets 1. Support 2. Empowerment 3. Boundaries/Expectations 4. Constructive Time Use 5. Learning Commitment 6. Positive Values 7. Social Competencies 8. Positive Identity Rate statements from rarely (0) to always (3) (Fraser-Thomas, Côté, & MacDonald, 2010) Birthplace and Developmental Assets Small Cities Large Cities Support 25.2 (4.0) 22.9 (4.5)* Empowerment 25.2 (3.9) 24.3 (4.1) Boundaries/expectations 25.0 (4.4) 23.2 (4.0)* Constructive time use 19.0 (5.4) 19.2 (5.7) Learning Commitment 24.8 (3.7) 22.6 (5.1)* Positive values 22.7 (4.1) 22.0 (4.0) Social competencies 23.7 (4.4) 23.2 (3.8) Positive identities 23.0 (5.1) 21.2 (5.1)* (Fraser-Thomas, Côté, & MacDonald, 2010) A Birthplace Effect: Why? A Case Study of a Community Hot Spot The purpose of this project was to conduct a single case study to systematically gather rich information via diverse sources to effectively understand how one successful sporting community developed athletic talent within a recent ten year span ( ). (Balish & Côté, submitted) The Community: Lockeport, Nova Scotia, Canada Population of 646 Within last 10 years ( ) Produced ten university level athletes (average graduating class of 24). Soccer and basketball teams at the local high school captured 10 provincial championships - more than double any similar size community in Nova Scotia. Data Collection Archives 28 news articles Provincial government statistics 2 technical reports 14 photographs of local signage and community resources Twenty-two interviews with community residents 10 athletes 3 parents / coaches 5 coaches 1 recreation director 1 mayor 1 grandparent Results 1. Developmental Experiences 2. Community Influences 3. Socio-cultural Influences Results Highlight: Youth-Driven Activities Youth-led play and practice Outdoor mixed-age pick up games Indoor mixed-age scrimmage Self-directed training (i.e. spontaneous practice) Results Highlight: Coaching Coaching Coach same group throughout development Making recreational areas accessible Scheduling high quality competition Bringing guest coaches into community Organizing sporting events within community Big Cities 1. Optimal facility resources (arenas, golf courses, fields) 2. Specialized coaching 3. Formal sport settings (practices, games) 4. Adult supervision required 5. Sport is played with individuals of similar age, size, and ability 6. Push towards year-long participation in one sport Smaller Cities 1. Facilities may not be optimal 2. Casual coaching 3. Formal and informal sport settings 4. Not always required 5. Variability in players age, size, and ability 6. Seasonal sports more common Environment of Smaller Cities: Features of Positive Developmental Settings (U.S National Research Council, 2002) 1. Physical and psychological safety 2. Appropriate structure 3. Supportive relationships 4. Opportunities to belong 5. Positive social norms 6. Support for efficacy and mattering 7. Opportunities for skill building 8. Integration of family, school, and community efforts A Development Framework for Sport Influences Developmental Activities Growth of Personal Assets Outcomes Environment Individual Characteristics Social Agents Youth or adult driven Instrumental or Intrinsic Competence Confidence Connection Character Participation Performance Personal Development TIME 1. Probable Outcomes 2. Probable Outcomes 3. Probable Outcomes RECREATIONAL YEARS High deliberate play Low deliberate practice SAMPLING YEARS High deliberate play Low deliberate practice Several sports INVESTMENT YEARS High deliberate practice Low deliberate play One sport SPECIALIZING YEARS Play and practice balanced Less involvement in several sports EARLY SPECIALIZATION & INVESTMENT High deliberate practice Low deliberate play One sport D R O P O U T 7 6 Entry into sport Côté, 1999; Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, 2007; Côté & Fraser-Thomas, 2007 The Common Building Blocks: 7 Postulates Associated with the DMSP 5 postulates in relation to sampling and deliberate play during childhood. The focus of sport programs during childhood (ages 6-12) should be on sampling and deliberate play instead of specialization in one sport and deliberate practice. 2 postulates in relation to key developmental transition periods. Côté, 2007; Côté, Lidor, & Hackfort, 2008 Postulate 1: Sampling and Performance Early diversification (sampling) does not hinder elite participation in sports where peak performance is reached after maturation. Supporting evidence: Retrospective quantitative data: Ice hockey (Soberlak & Côté, 2003), field hockey, basketball, netball (Baker, Côté, & Abernethy, 2003), triathlon (Baker, Côté, & Deakin, 2005), baseball (Gilbert, Côté, Harada, Marchbanks & Gilbert, 2002). Experimental data: Abernethy, Baker, & Côté (2005) transfer of skills from one sport to another. Qualitative data: Tennis (Carlson, 1988; Côté, 1999; Monsaas, 1985), baseball (Hill, 1993) and rowing (Côté, 1999). Early specialization sports: Rythmic gymnastics (Law, Côté, & Ericsson, 2007), women s figure skating (Starkes, Deakin, Allard, Hodges, & Hays, 1996). Postulate 2: Sampling and Participation Early diversification (sampling) is linked to a long sport career and has positive implications for long-term sport involvement. Supporting evidence: Continued participation quantitative data: Recreational sport participation (Robertson-Wilson, Baker, Derbinshyre, & Côté, 2003). Dropout/burnout qualitative data: Tennis (Carlson, 1988; Gould, Tuffey, Udry, and Loehr, 1996), swimming (Fraser-Thomas, Côté, & Deakin, 2008a). Dropout quantitative data: Ice hockey (Wall & Côté, 2007), swimming (Fraser- Thomas, Côté, & Deakin, 2008b). Length of career data: Swimming (Barynina & Vaitsekhovskii, 1992), master athletes (Baker, Côté, & Deakin, 2006). Postulate 3: Sampling and Personal Development Early diversification allows participation in a range of contexts that most favourably affects youth development. Supporting evidence: Qualitative data: Wright & Côté (2003) showed that diversified sport experiences during childhood fostered positive peer relationships and leadership skills in university level athletes. Quantitative data: Fredricks & Eccles (2006) showed that adolescents involvement in a greater number of extracurricular activities was associated with better psychological adjustment, school belonging, and more positive peer context. Strachan, Côté, & Deakin (2009) show different positive experiences for specializers and samplers. Postulate 4: Deliberate Play and Performance A high amount of deliberate play during the sampling years establishes a range of motor and cognitive experiences that the child can ultimately bring to their principal sport of interest. Supporting Evidence: Qualitative data: High amount of deliberate play in elite tennis (Carlson 1988; Côté, 1999), rowing (Côté, 1999), and baseball (Hill, 1993). Quantitative data: Soberlak and Côté (2003), Berry, Abernethy, Côté (2008) - elite players were involved in more deliberate play hours than deliberate practice hours from ages 6 to 12. Postulate 5: Deliberate Play and Participation High amounts of deliberate play during the sampling years builds a solid foundation of intrinsic motivation through involvement in activities that are enjoyable and promote intrinsic regulation. Supporting Evidence: Qualitative data: High amount of deliberate play and continued sport participation in team sports and swimming (Wright & Côté, 2003; Fraser-Thomas & Côté, 2009). Theories: Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000) - early intrinsically motivating behaviors (e.g. deliberate play) will have a positive effect over time on an individual s overall motivation. Achievement goal theory - a deliberate play environment during the sampling years is closely link to creating a task climate (Biddle, 2001; Treasure, 2001). Postulate 6: Transition from Sampling to Specializing Around the end of primary school (around age 13), children should have the opportunity to either choose to specialize in their favourite sport or continue in sport at a recreational level. Supporting Evidence: Quantitative data: Specialization in one sport does not occur before age 13 in sport where peak performance is reached in adulthood (Baker et al. 2003; Baker et al., 2005; Berry et al., 2008; Gilbert et al., 2002; Soberlak & Côté, 2003). Qualitative data : Kirk and MacPhail (2003); MacPhail, Gorely, and Kirk (2003). Sport structure: Weiss and Petlichkoff (1989). Postulate 7: Transition from Specializing to Investment Late adolescents (around age 16) have developed the physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and motor skills needed to invest their effort into highly specialized training in one sport. Supporting Evidence: Quantitative data: Baker et al. (2003); Baker et al. (2005); Helsen et al. (1998). Qualitative data: Bloom (1985); Côté (1999). Developmental Readiness: Patel, Pratt, & Greydanus (2002). Early specialization: Rythmic gymnastics (Law, Côté, & Ericsson, 2007) and women s figure skating (Starkes, Deakin, Allard, Hodges, & Hays, 1996) more injuries and less enjoyment. Probable Outcomes Recreational Participation RECREATIONAL YEARS High deliberate play Low deliberate practice Personal Development SAMPLING YEARS High deliberate play Low deliberate practice Several sports 2. Probable Outcomes Elite Performance INVESTMENT YEARS High deliberate practice Low deliberate play One sport SPECIALIZING YEARS Play and practice balanced Less involvement in several sports 3. Probable Outcomes Elite Performance Participation? Personal Development? EARLY SPECIALIZATION & INVESTMENT High deliberate practice Low deliberate play One sport D R O P O U T 7 6 Entry into sport Côté, 1999; Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, 2007; Côté & Fraser-Thomas, 2007 A Development Framework for Sport Influences Developmental Activities Growth of Personal Assets Outcomes Environment Individual Characteristics Social Agents Youth or
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