Center for Miljø og Luftveje Final report - PDF

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Center for Miljø og Luftveje Final report DET STRATEGISKE MILJØFORSKNINGS- PROGRAM Center for Miljø og Luftveje Final Report DET STRATEGISKE MILJØFORSKNINGS- PROGRAM Center for Miljø og Luftveje Final

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Center for Miljø og Luftveje Final report DET STRATEGISKE MILJØFORSKNINGS- PROGRAM Center for Miljø og Luftveje Final Report DET STRATEGISKE MILJØFORSKNINGS- PROGRAM Center for Miljø og Luftveje Final report ISBN: København 2003 Tryk: DTKommunikation A/S Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet Lersø Parkallé København Ø Tel.: Fax.: Appraisal of the program The present Research Centre Environment and the Lung was established in 1998 by funding from the subprogramme Environmental and health damaging compounds under the Danish Environmental Research Programme The Centre is the result of integration and focusing of the following three originally independent Centre applications: Adjuvant effects of plasticizers and surfactants Risk assessment and management (Otto M. Poulsen) Non Infectious Health Effects of Airborne Micro-organisms: NIHAM (Torben Sigsgaard) Human Health Effects of Exposure to Air pollution: HEAP (Ole Hertel) The Centre was formally closed 15 April The overall objective of the Centre has been to provide a scientific knowledge base for decision making, aiming at reduction of exposure to environmental pollutants being a substantial health risk to the population. To reach this objective the Centre has had particular emphasis on the development of new measurement methods or advanced models, which are generally applicable in risk assessment of environmental, airborne chemicals or microorganisms. Even though many of the research activities of the Centre have the characteristics of basic research, we have developed a series of new, highly useful methods and models. Hence, the objective of the centre has to a large extend has been successfully met. The publication list of the Centre clearly demonstrates, that the Centre has been highly productive in the dissemination of results to the scientific community as well as to decision makers and the public in general. More than 70 scientific papers and contributions to proceedings have originated from the Centre. In addition, 21 theses, reports or chapter contributions to books have been published, and participants of the Centre have made numerous oral presentations both in English and Danish. Also, the Centre has been very active in the education of scientists. Nine Ph.D.-projects have fully or partially been carried out as part of the Centre projects. During autumn 2001 an independent expert group carried out a midterm evaluation of the Centre. The expert group emphasized the novelty of the developed methods and models, but also suggested that spin-off and mutual benefits from collaboration between the three main research areas were limited. It is correct, that it has been difficult to obtain synergy between the three main research areas they are simply too distant. However, it should be appreciated that the Centre emerged as a fusion of three independent Centre applications. To do this a highly restricted selection process was necessary since funding was only available for less than half of the projects of the three Centre applications. Projects were only selected if they could contribute to the establishment of necessary methods for risk assessment. In addition, the projects should also contain the potential for synergy with other projects within the particular main research areas. A high number of researchers have been involved in the research activities of the Centre, and during the lifespan of the Centre there has been a very fruitful scientific dialog between the main research areas. Also, the Centre has collaborated with a multitude of researchers outside the Centre. Their i contribution with theoretical expert knowledge and advanced experimental procedures is gratefully acknowledged. In conclusion, the Centre has provided the framework for highly productive and innovative research activities and strong collaborations within Denmark and internationally. A platform has been created for future research in adverse effects of the environment on the lung. We have the potential for research which is both of high relevance to the society and of outstanding scientific quality and impact. Hopefully, funding will be made available for this in near future. We decided to prepare this final report in English to provide both national and international experts with detailed knowledge on the results and achievements of the Centre. For the Danish decision makers in governmental and private organisations we have in parallel presentedd the main results of the Centre in a special issue of Miljø og Sundhed (Research Centre for Environment and Health), and in a thematic issue of Miljøforskning (Danish Environmental Research Programme). April, 2003 Otto Melchior Poulsen Centre leader ii Participants of the Centre Centre leader was research director Otto Melchior Poulsen (OMP), National Institute of Occupational Health (AMI). The board of governors: Research director Otto Melchior Poulsen, National Institute of Occupational Health Associate professor Jesper Bælum, Odense University Hospital, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Senior scientist Ole Hertel, National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Atmospheric Environment Professor Steffen Loft, University of Copenhagen, Institute of Public Health Research director, Lars K Poulsen, National University Hospital, Allergy Unit Associate professor Torben Sigsgaard, University of Aarhus, Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine Professor Erling H Stenby, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Chemical Engineering During the last year, senior scientist Thomas Schneider has been scientific and administrative coordinator of the Centre, including coordination of inputs for the preparation of the final report. The participating institutions and project leaders: Aarhus University Hospital, associate professor Martin Iversen, laboratory chief Hans Jürgen Hoffmann, Department of Pulmonary Medicine Danish Building Research Institute, senior scientist Lars Gunnarsen Technical University of Denmark, professor Erling H. Stenby, Department of Chemical Engineering Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, senior scientist Ole Ladefoged, senior scientist Elsa Nielsen, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition EnPro APS, M.Sc. Eva Margareta Wallström National Environmental Research Institute, senior scientist Ole Hertel, Department of Atmospheric Environment National Institute of Occupational Health, senior scientist Mari-Ann Flyvholm, programme leader Uffe Midtgård, senior scientist Gunnar Damgård Nielsen, senior scientist Erik Olsen, senior scientist Håkan Wallin, senior scientist Per Axel Clausen National University Hospital, research director Lars K. Poulsen, Allergy Unit Odense University Hospital, associate professor Jesper Bælum, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine University of Aarhus, associate professor Torben Sigsgaard, associate professor Lars Mølhave, associate professor Eva C Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine University of Copenhagen, professor Steffen Loft, Institute of Public Health Project participants: Traffic emission Helle Vibeke Andersen, National Environmental Research Institute iii Herman Autrup, Aarhus University Ruwim Berkowicz, National Environmental Research Institute Jette Bornholdt, National Institute of Occupational Health Lars Dragsted, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition Marianne Dybdahl, National Institute of Occupational Health Martin Hvidberg, National Environmental Research Institute Lisbeth E Knudsen, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen Peter Møller, National Institute of Occupational Health Finn Palmgren, National Environmental Research Institute Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society (DCS) Henrik Skov, National Environmental Research Institute Steen Solvang Jensen, National Environmental Research Institute Mette Sørensen, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen Peter Vinzents, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen Ulla Vogel, National Institute of Occupational Health Peter Wåhlin, National Environmental Research Institute Micro-organisms and their biologically active components Kurt Andersson, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro Medical Centre JJ Bønløkke, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus Universitet Gert Doekes, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Odense University Hospital JE Juto, Huddinge Sjukhus, Öron, Näsa, Halskliniken, Sweden T Karlsson, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro Medical Centre Søren K Kjærgaard, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus Universitet Tanja Krüger, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus Universitet Preben Larsen, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Odense University Hospital Håkan Lövsted, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital Göran Stridh, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital. Plasticizers and surfactants Ali Afshari, Danish Building Research Institute Rikke L Lindeberg Bille, National Institute of Occupational Health and DHI Water and Environment Søren Bøwadt, European Commision, Research Directorate (B7, 3/12) Hongyuan Cheng, IVC-SEP, Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark Susanne Knoth Clausen, National Institute of Occupational Health Christian Glue, Allergy Unit, National University Hospital Lars Gunnarsen, Danish Building Research Institute Vivi Hansen, National Institute of Occupational Health iv Jim Hart, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration Karen Frydendall Jepsen, National Institute of Occupational Health Georgios M. Kontogeorgis, IVC-SEP, Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark Søren Thor Larsen, National Institute of Occupational Health Anne Kirstine Müller, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration Tobias Nilsson, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University Bo Svensmark, Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen Grete Østergaard, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. Collaboration with researchers outside the Centre The Centre has cooperated with a large number of researchers in Denmark, with researchers engaged in EU research programs and with other researchers from Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. The most important contributors were: Traffic emission Professor Henrik E Poulsen, Dept of Clinical Pharmacology, National Hospital Associate professor, DMSc Poul Kristjansen, Institute of Molecular Pathology Professor Jos Kleinjans, Maastricht University, The Netherlands Dr. Andrew Collins, Rowett Institute, Abeerdeen, Scotland Dr. Ryszard Olinski, Bydgodz University, Poland Dr. Frank Raes og Dr. Rita van Dingenen, Joint Research Centre ISPRA, Italy Dr. Paul Borm, Düsselsdorf University Dr. Roel Schins, Düsselsdorf University Dr. Jan Beyea, Consulting in the Public Interest, Box 220, Lambertville, NJ 08530, USA Micro-organisms and their biologically active components MD, Dr.MSc. Ivan Brandslund, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vejle County Hospital Professor Carsten Bindslev Jensen, Allergy Center, Odense University Hospital Professor Per Stahl Skov, Department of Allergy, National University Hospital Senior researcher Bent Løschenkohl, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Dr. Jens Seedorf, Tierärtzliche Hochschule Hannover, Germany Professor Leif Bjermer, Trondhjems Universitet, Norway Environmental and Occupational Health Group, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands Plasticizers and surfactants Professor Yves Alarie, University of Pittsburgh Professor C. C. Chen, Aspen Tech, Boston, USA Prof. Harald Renz, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, University of Marburg, Germany Dr. Leif Øie, Dept. of Population Health Sciences, Nat. Inst. of Public Health, Oslo v vi Contents Appraisal of the program...i Participants of the Centre...iii Contents...vii Overall background and objectives...1 Overall achievements of the Centre...3 Traffic emission...3 Hazard identification models...3 Exposure models...3 Microorganisms and their biologically active components...4 Mechanisms and hazard identification...4 Risk assessment of the use of bio-pesticides in greenhouses...4 Plasticizers and detergents...4 Hazard identification...5 Exposure assessment...5 Risk assessment and structure-activity relationship...5 Individual projects...7 Project 1.0 State of the science review...7 Traffic emission...7 Project 1.4 Pulmonary effects of diesel particles in vivo...7 Project 2.1 Development of an air pollution model for traffic emission - Biomarkers and Air samplers for Assessment of Exposure and Effects of Urban Air Pollution BIOAIRPEX...10 Micro-organisms and their biologically active components...13 Project 1.1 Acute airway inflammation during work in swine confinement buildings. AIBAL13 Project 1.2 Cytokine release from mucosal membranes after experimental exposures to organic dust - DAMOS Project 1.5 Inflammatory and allergic reactions to micro-organisms in vitro. INFAL Project 2.6 Bio-pesticide work process-exposure matrix model. BIOGART...23 Project 3.5 Risk assessment of work with bio-pesticides...23 Plasticizers and surfactants...26 Project 1.3 Adjuvant effect of surfactants and plasticizers in vivo...26 Project 1.6 Inflammatory and allergic reactions to plasticizers in vitro...29 Project 2.2 Exposure model for plasticizers...32 Project 2.3 Exposure information based on product composition and use...38 Project 2.4 Emission of plasticizers from construction products...40 Project 2.5 Plasticizers and surfactants in indoor dust...42 Project 3.1 Hazard assessment models for adjuvant effects based on structure activity...44 Project 3.2 Risk assessment models for adjuvant effects...45 Project 3.3 Modeling of Surfactant s Chemical Structure...47 Project 3.4 Models for substitution of surfactants...54 Dissemination...55 Related and derived research activities...57 Traffic emission...57 Micro-organisms and their biologically active components...57 Plasticizers and surfactants...57 Education of researchers...59 Traffic emission...59 Micro-organisms and their biologically active components...59 vii Plasticizers and surfactants...59 Publications by the Centre...60 Scientific papers and contributions to proceedings...60 Reports and books...65 Scientific presentations of or including results from the Centre - English...66 Scientific presentations of or including results from the Centre - Danish...70 Dissemination to users...72 viii Overall background and objectives The overall objective of the Centre was to provide a scientific knowledge base for decision making, aiming at reducing exposure to environmental pollutants being a substantial health risk to the population. To achieve this objective the Centre had particular emphasis on the development of new measurement methods and advanced models, that are generally applicable in risk assessment of environmental, airborne chemicals or micro-organisms. The research activities of the Centre have focused on pulmonary effects of exposures within the three high priority areas: Traffic emission: Project 1.4 and 2.1 Micro-organisms and their biologically active components: Project 1.1, 1.2, 1.5, 2.6, and 3.5 Plasticizers and surfactants: Project 1.3, 1,6, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 Due to resource and time constraints it was not possible to include all elements of risk assessment within all three areas. Thus, each area focused on selected elements of risk assessment. Of the 17 projects one covered literature review, six were within hazard identification, six within exposure assessment, and five within risk assessment and risk management. Traffic emission is today the main source of air pollution in the cities of Denmark. It is well known that long term exposure to high concentrations of air pollution from traffic, industry and power plants can lead to increased risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases in humans, whereas short term exposure may lead to exacerbation of bronchitis, asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. With respect to traffic regulation policy it is of great strategic importance to obtain knowledge on the impact of traffic emission on the health of the Danish population. Knowledge was limited particularly on health effects of exposure to small particles from traffic emission, and the possibility of obtaining such knowledge was hampered by the lack of valid high-resolution air pollution models. Consequently, a major objective of the Centre was to develop a high resolution street air pollution model (for Greater Copenhagen), both for the prediction of the effect of traffic regulation on air pollution levels, and for the estimation of short and long term exposure level for traffic generated pollution of each individual in epidemiological studies. Emphasis has been on models for small particles that are the result of combustion in diesel engines (DEP) and which are considered particularly hazardous, and the Centre has included hazard identification studies on DEP. Thanks to substantial additional funding the Centre succeeded in conducting extensive measurements comprising four measurement campaigns that also provide data on annual variations etc. Exposure to bio-aerosols containing micro-organisms or biologically active components thereof may pose a health risk not only in isolated occupational settings with high exposure (e.g. cotton mills, waste handling facilities, and swine confinements) but also more widespread in private houses, schools and Kindergartens. Knowledge was limited on the pulmonary health effects of exposure to non-infectious airborne micro-organisms and biologically active components thereof. Thus, the Centre has focused on the development of methods both for the identification of susceptible individuals and for hazard identification of biological agents. Overall, the focus has been on the study of mechanisms that are relevant for hazard identification. 1 Plasticizers and surfactants are high volume chemicals used in numerous products and spread to the environment in large quantities. Plasticizers, particularly phthalates, and surfactants are present on indoor air dust, and recent studies indicated that surfactants and plasticizers may enhance the health damaging potential of common allergens (possess adjuvant effects). The potential adjuvant effects of plasticizers and surfactants are of particular strategic interest because the prevalence of allergic diseases and symptoms is very high and increasing in the Danish population. The Centre has identified exposure routes, which has also included development of exposure assessment models. No methods existed for hazard identification of adjuvant effects related to the development of pulmonary allergy. Thus, the Centre has to a large extent developed new methods. The quality of research at the Centre is documented in the large number of scientific publications and presentations originating from the Centre. In accordance with the aims in the Danish Environmental Research Programme the Centre also has been very active in disseminating the knowledge at a national level to administrative and political decision makers in e.g. agencies and governmental departments. Finally, the Center has contributed substantially to education of researchers (PhD and Master students). Thereby, the Centre has contributed to the recruitment of environmental researchers, and the participating research institutions have created the necessary platform for continuing the research activities of the Centre after termination of the program. 2 Overall achievements of the Centre To reach the overall objective the Cent
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