ESSAYS Politics and Society 3/2006 Bronisław Pasierb OF THE TRADITION OF POLISH POLITICAL SCIENCE (PART 2). JÓZEF MILEWSKI ( ) 1. Józef Milewski was a lawyer by education, an economist by profession,

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ESSAYS Politics and Society 3/2006 Bronisław Pasierb OF THE TRADITION OF POLISH POLITICAL SCIENCE (PART 2). JÓZEF MILEWSKI ( ) 1. Józef Milewski was a lawyer by education, an economist by profession, a political scientist by calling and an author of one play (M. J. D. 1899: 112). What is more, he was also a political practitioner, a Member of Parliament, a publicist and an orator. He was born on 20 th March 1859 in Poznań, a son of Józefa Sarnowska and Franciszek Witold (Encyklopedia... [Encyclopedia...] 1864: 594) a national and educational activist. He had four brothers (Kazimierz, Stanisław, Ludwik and Bronisław) and a sister Paulina. Milewski, like his father, graduated from a well-known Mary Magdalene Gymnasium in Poznań and began studies in the Faculty of Law at the Jagiellonian University, which he continued in Germany two semesters later. He sat a law exam in Berlin, receiving a juris doctor diploma in Leipzig on 10 th May Milewski proceeded with his studies, taking up economics at a few universities in Germany, France, Great Britain and Poland (in Warsaw). During the studies, he published his first treatise entitled: An issue of gold currency in Germany which appeared in Dziennik Poznański [Poznań Daily] in Milewski moved to Kraków [Cracow] in 1886, where his doctoral degree was nostrified by the Jagiellonian University. In 1886, a dissertation entitled Prawo spadkowe a własność ziemska [Law of succession versus landed property] became a basis for his earning a degree of assistant professor in political economy the very same year. He started lecturing already in the academic year of 1886/87. Two years later Milewski was promoted, taking the post of associate professor and in 1892 the post of full professor. In July 1896 Milewski became an asso- Of the tradition of Polish political science (part 2) 101 ciate member of the Akademia Umiejętności w Krakowie [Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow], representing the Philosophical-Historical Department. Earlier in 1894 he was also a member of Komisja Prawnicza w składzie Stałych Komisji Akademii [the Legal Board of Academy Standing Committee] (RAU 1896: 41, cf. RAU 1995). On 12 th May of the same year Milewski became a member of the Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk w Poznaniu [Poznań Society of Friends of Arts and Sciences]. He was elected Dean of the Faculty of Law three times. In 1906 Milewski retired from the Jagiellonian University at his own request and together with some other Jagiellonian University professors founded Związek Pracy Narodowej 1 [National Labour Union], which marked a beginning of his political activity. Simultaneously, he took over the management of Bank Krajowy we Lwowie [Lvov Regional Bank]. Milewski was awarded an honorary professorship at the University of Lvov in He spent the years of the First World War in Lvov. In June 1915, together with the remaining management of the Bank, he was taken hostage by the retreating Russians. He stayed in Kiev since the end of June 1915, where he suffered a premature death a severe loss for Polish society. He passed away on Sunday of 18 th January 1916 at 10 a.m The conservative camp of the professors underwent certain ideological transformations. Hence, some changed their political profile, founding in May 1906 the Związek Pracy Narodowej, spearheaded not only by count Zdzisław Tarnowski and»czas«[time] editor Rudolf Starzewski but also by two Jagiellonian University professors: Józef Milewski and Henryk Jordan. Odezwa Związku Pracy Narodowej, Archiwum Państwowe Krakowskie, Archiwum Tarnowskich z Dzikowa, RZ 43. Quoted after: Buszko 1963: S. Głąbiński a rector of the University at the time, greeted Professor J. Milewski with joy and a justified hope that he will bring glory to our Alma Matris (Kronika... [The Chronicle...] 1912: 264). 3 The late Józef Milewski ( Tygodnik Ilustrowany [Weekly Illustrated], no. 6, 5 th February 1916, p. 71. Nekrologia. Śp. prof. Józef Milewski [Obituary. The late Józef Milewski],»Czas«[Time], no. 62, 4th February 1916, p. 3. Cf. Tyrowicz; Wielka encyklopedia... [The Great Encyclopaedia...], 1911, v. XLVII: ; Oestereichisches : An evaluation of Milewski by a contemporary historian was exaggerated and made from a class point of view. J. Buszko singled out all the manifestations of obscurantism and conservatism in Milewski s biography. He wrote that Milewski was not known for his research papers but for being a»golden-mouthed orator«who voices his most reactionary opinions in a very flashy manner and enjoys abusing science-derived arguments and terminology in political polemic. His explicitly pseudoscientific parliamentary speeches which simultaneously have demagogic undertones, earned him full recognition and an aura of»scientific seriousness«in the conservative-gentry camp (Buszko 1963: 55). 102 BRONISŁAW PASIERB He was one of the most prominent figures in the local scientific, political and financial circles wrote»rok Polski«[Polish Yearly]. Silence which followed the news of his death in Kraków seems in a striking opposition to the opinion and the considerable merits of the late Milewski and the recognition he earned during his lifetime. Is death such a common event nowadays? Or is it that the wave of wartime occurrences makes everyone forget? So even those who had always been proud of the late Milewski, frequently making him take the most demanding posts, did not make an effort to dedicate a posthumous remembrance to him 4. The profile of Milewski, particularly his academic career, research interests and political attitude, were characteristic of academic circles in Galicia. He was listed among political professors next to names such as: Julian Dunajewski, Antoni Zygmunt Helcel, Stanisław Tarnowski, Józef Szujski, Michał Bobrzyński, Fryderyk Zoll and Maksymilian Zatorski (Estreicher 1931: 36; cf. Buszko 1963: 15). Nevertheless, it was not only professors who had the privilege to do politics. Jagiellonian University rectors also actively participated in the political life of Galicia, working in the Sejm Krajowy [State Sejm] on behalf of the conservative camp 5. One has to admit, however, that Milewski s attitude at different moments of his political activity provoked certain controversies, which came in turn to be reflected in academic writings and memoirs (Cf. Buszko 1963: 56; Daszyński 1959: 173; Bobrzyński 1957; Chłędowski 4 Rok Polski [Polish Year], R. I, no. 2, March 1916, p The first short notice was published by Czas [Time] on 26 th January Quoting the press from Copenhagen, it wrote that late Member of Parliament and Sejm a University professor Dr Milewski died in Kiev (Zgon Dra J. Milewskiego [Dr Milewski s Death], Czas, Vienna, 26 th January 1916). A longer obituary, consisting of a fragment of biography was published by the daily on 4 th February Quoting the Kiev Daily, they wrote that the late Dr Józef Milewski had died on Sunday morning on 16 th January at 10 a.m. Before he died, Milewski asked his daughter, who accompanied him after he had been sent into exile, and others present, to organize a private funeral only. He asked those who would wish to remember him to make donations for Polish exiles instead of buying wreaths (Nekrologia. Śp. prof. Józef Milewski, Czas, no. 62, 4 th February 1916, p. 3). Also in: Rok Polski [Polish Year], R. I, no. 2, March 1916, p and Tygodnik Ilustrowany [Weekly Illustrated], no. 6, 5 th Feb. 1916, p. 71 (with a photograph enclosed). 5 Cf. Starzyński 1900; Bankowicz, Dudek, Majchrowski A. Dudek did not mention Milewski in his discussion of the tradition of Polish conservatism (Cf. p ). Of the tradition of Polish political science (part 2) ). On one hand, one cannot nowadays agree with a significant number of the opinions. On the other, one cannot help observing an astonishing ease with which Milewski manoeuvred in different political milieux. It was possible due to his independent attitude of a scholar and parliamentary practitioner, which was backed up by recognized achievements 6. These were evidenced by Milewski s parliamentary activities. His attitude did, however, lead to a situation in which he was compelled to resign from his mandate. The incident occurred during a meeting and was observed by one of its participants who later told a Gazeta Narodowa [National Daily] journalist: I have been meticulously examining national life in all provinces of Poland for a few decades, but I have never witnessed such a meeting before. It was a clash between two radically different political standpoints: the policy of principles and the policy of expediency. Deputy Milewski was the only political successor of great Cracovian politicians of principles, such as Szujski, Popiel and Dunajewski. His opponents were a glaring contradiction of these traditions. I take it very strongly because the writings and activities of those people constituted a cornerstone of my upbringing. The whole meeting can be summarized in the words of Mr. Milewski s last speech:»gentlemen, you are seeking a temporary success, I am thinking ahead«. Milewski himself said during the aforementioned meeting: In public life I have never acted according to the programme of one particular party but according to my own programme 7. The majority of evaluations made by Milewski s contemporaries bore, however, a stigma of the times in which they were 6 It was a self-explanatory fact that his name was listed in the collective work entitled: Z dziejów odrodzenia politycznego Galicji [From the history of political renaissance of Galicja ] next to the latter-day personages such as: Michał Dobrzyński and Władysław Leopold Jaworski, with his contribution being in principle parliamentary not academic. It was the Budget for the year 1866 which was reported in the Sejm by J. Milewski. 7 He obeyed this principle in both his publicist and academic work. His writings were published not only by conservative Czas [Time], Przegląd Polski [Polish Review], Jesuit Przegląd Powszechny [General Review] or Dziennik Poznański [Poznań Daily] and Lvov s Gazeta Narodowa [National Newspaper] where, inter alia, he published subsequent parts of the salient text entitled Wykład o kulturze politycznej [A lecture on political culture] (no. 19, 20, 21 i 22; 25, 26, 27 i 28 th January 1912). Cf. Sejmik relacyjny posła Dr Milewskiego, Supplement to Gazeta Narodowa [National Newspaper], no. 5, 9 th January 1912. 104 BRONISŁAW PASIERB formulated. The frenzy of political struggle frequently badly affected the way Milewski was evaluated 8. As it seems, the above-mentioned incident must have directly influenced the life as well as academic and political activities of Milewski. The event will be broached again further in the paper. I have mentioned Milewski s political embroilments, his ideological conflicts, social activity and his search for a place in life, even though they are not the topic of this paper. However, a human being is a whole and it is impossible to make a clear-cut division between Milewski s difficult experiences in politics and his academic research on political culture. Having analyzed his writings and looked at the way he was perceived by people of different social backgrounds, one sees Milewski as a, foremost, very active person, a Renaissance man, ambitious and unaffected by adversities. He definitely knew how to cope with problems. Milewski was also continuously interested in the affairs of the state. Accumulating various experiences, he kept abreast with monitoring events happening in more than just one partition. He was familiar with both foreign and native literature, especially that of his political camp. He took advantage of it all in his academic and popular work. The conclusions he came to with regard to political, parliamentary life, were used in his academic papers. He had the grounds for passing important judgements concerning the condition of the state and its problems. Milewski kept on pondering over what he regarded as the best solutions for the State 9. He was never rash in his actions, but worked systematically, with a plan in mind. He frequently recalled Aristotelian thought that a statesman has to be an expert on what is and a founder of what there should be (Milewski, Czerkawski 1905: 14). Milewski was not, in fact, meant to become a statesman, a political 8 He wrote on the occasion of international celebrations of May 1 st Failure of this manifestation indicated two favourable things. On one hand, the working-class conditions are not yet so hopeless that an outbreak of some sort, irrational but terrible, may be a continuous threat. On the other, European societies are strong and organized enough to fight off with force any sudden attack against the present legal order (Cf. Milewski 1890: 39). 9 W. Studnicki in his review accused Milewski of not tackling the issue: where and how one should look for the state for our nation. Apart from that, the reviewer highly evaluated Milewski s contribution. See Zagadnienia... [Issues...] 1809: (photograph of the author). An identical point was made by another reviewer who wrote a rather extensive review. Cf. Halban 1910, z. VIII ; 1910, z. IX: Of the tradition of Polish political science (part 2) 105 visionary, but he was a decent artisan with regard to politics; a pragmatist, and an advocate of organic work, building from the foundations. He eagerly used the notion of a nation and acknowledged its significance, pondering the ways of its maintenance and development (Milewski 1909: 69). He was a scholar, a politician and an economic entrepreneur who as he wrote himself lived and worked not only in all three partitions but also abroad as a deputy in the Viennese Parliament ( ) and the Sejm Krajowy (since 1901). Thus, he was exposed to tasks, difficulties and defects of our national politics. He also lectured at both Polish universities and worked in our public institutions (Towarzystwo Rolnicze, Bank Krajowy [The Agricultural Society and the State Bank]. Therefore Milewski had an opportunity to get to know people, affairs, relations 10. He maintained contacts with his home Wielkopolska [Greater Poland] and never lost as it was written about him a countrywide point of view, assessing each issue from a much broader perspective 11. An analysis of Milewski s political attitudes or other manifestations of his social, organizational and economic activities etc. does not belong to the scope of this paper. I would like to focus on his deliberations related to the issues of political science, particularly focusing on the concept of political culture. Milewski s academic and publicist activity flourished at the turn of the century between 1881 and At the time he completed his basic economic and political science works. Interestingly, the idea that the only safe way, congruent with the purpose of his life, was a hope for the development and growth of political culture (Milewski 1912: 16) was a leading theme throughout his academic activity. What did Milewski mean by the notion of political culture? It is difficult to describe it in a word or two, especially that formulating definitions was not a habit of his. However, political culture appears frequently understood in terms of the so-called process of all social strata becoming citizens and one nation. This involved democratization of society and its political institutions, which Milewski explained and discussed in detail in his paper of 1909: Politics has become more difficult these days, especially because broad social strata do not wish to be seen as misera contribuenes plebs. Moreover, there are many obsolete statesmen who cannot take into 10 From the preface of a work entitled: Zagadnienie... [Issue...] 1909: IV. 11 Rok Polski, March 1916, no. 2, Year I, p. 76. 106 BRONISŁAW PASIERB account this change of relationships and ideas. It is no longer enough to behave in a proper manner. One has to persuade people that it is so, gaining their confidence both in one s intellect and unbending good will as well as in one s love for public affairs... This has become powerful due to democratization of politics, becoming an urgent task for national education. It is national education that has to kindle national consciousness and a sense of civic duties in all social circles without drawing them away from a plough or a workshop or depriving them of their vocation. It is to unite them by means of common awareness of not only their own business but also of national affairs, laws and interests. This powerful mass of people will exert their influence through civic deeds and virtues as well as the love of common national ideals. They will be willing to serve and work not only for their own sake but for the nation, generous with money and eager to devote time to civic service. Thus, national education has a moral task: it is helping the people to become citizens in the most noble meaning of this word (Milewski... : 22 23). In my view, Milewski meticulously and systematically worked on his studies of political culture. He had to work very intensely, wisely dividing his time between all his parallel interests, namely, the treasury, finances, taxes and economic policy. Given the scope of his interests, it is therefore, difficult to discuss a complete contribution of Milewski in this paper 12. In his writings Milewski frequently used original fragments of dissertations mainly by French and British scholars, and in particular German ones. He also often quoted from classical literature, primarily Plato and Aristotle. As far as Polish literature is concerned, Milewski made a frequent use of works by S. Tarnowski, J. Szujski, P. Popiel, A. Cieszkowski, K. Libelt, B. Trentowski, L. Wasilewski, S. Smolka, B. Dembiński and W. Konopczyński. He drew on belles-lettres, too, quoting not only from the writings by our national bards, especially Słowacki and Krasiński, but also by Wyspiański. His contemporaries perceived him as clericalist, mainly due to his opinions on the role of religion and the Church in social and national life. It was in this spirit that he had a series of lectures and speeches at rallies and wrote his publications which were published not exclusively in the Catholic press. 12 A full bibliography still needs to be compiled. It encompasses the period between Milewski s first publication in 1881 in Dziennik Poznański and his, as it seems, last work dealing with political culture, written in 1912. Of the tradition of Polish political science (part 2) 107 National tradition and principles of the Catholic faith were a basis of his programme (Milewski : 9). A. Cieszkowski was his favourite writer an author whose books Milewski read quite frequently. Milewski was regarded as a skilled orator who knew how to carry away his audience, making a particular impression on female listeners at Catholic conventions and electoral gatherings. He was a born preacher, softspoken, using catchy slogans, sophisticated vocabulary and speaking in the manner of a priest at the pulpit in a way that every time I heard him, I had this feeling that he missed his vocation, becoming a political and not a church orator wrote down K. Chłędowski in his diary (Chłędowski 1958: 326). In fact, Milewski had a lot to say not only because he had a significant orator s experience but he also tried to present theoretical remarks with regard to the topics (Milewski : 19 and ff.). Milewski s understanding of science did not resemble an attitude of those scholars who viewed their work in a very narrow-minded manner, limiting it to cognizing the essence of the phenomenon and discovering rules and truths. They rejected entering the realm of practical questions of science 13. On the contrary, Milewski s works, apart from containing an analysis of the current situation of the state, description of the processes taking place in economy and international politics, with an emphasis on the
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