Book Review: France Jamen, Le cercueil de Padikhonsu au musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon (XXIe dynastie), Studien zu altägyptischen Totentexten 20 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016). ISBN 9783447103725. Pp. xii +240

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Book Review: France Jamen, Le cercueil de Padikhonsu au musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon (XXIe dynastie), Studien zu altägyptischen Totentexten 20 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016). ISBN 9783447103725. Pp. xii +240

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   BOOK REVIEWS 353 would be a need for medical care due to the conditions of the journeys and the presence of dangerous animals, and also that lectors would be requested to establish a significant cultic program in the temples outside Egypt (Sinai, Serabit el-Khadim, Timna). In the legal reper-toire, the author succeeds in identifying sources that demonstrate the participation of lectors in local coun-cils, at times even as a judge. Finally, Forshaw brings his study to an end with a survey of the most significant roles played by the lector in belle-lettres: as a magician with effective powers (Westcar), as a wise man who earned his position by merit (Neferty), as a healer from the netherworld (Meryra), or as a spirit guarding papy-ri (Setna). Eventually, the author concludes that “there is a certain degree of ambiguity in the office and rank of lector as demonstrated by the varying importance of the bearers of this title, which range from viziers to sons of the nomarch to ‘scribes of the ship’s watch’” (139). The following are cases in which I disagree with the author or where some additional comments might be pertinent. In addition, I will refer to fur-ther bibliography for particular issues that the author has not included in his work and might be useful for the reader. i) In the discussion of Pap. Ramesseum E, add the recent works by M. Downing and R. Par-kinson, “The tomb of the Ramesseum Papyri in the Newberry Papers, The Griffith Institute, Oxford,”  BM-SAES  23 (2016), 35–45; and R. Díaz-Hernández,  Der  Ramesseumspapyrus E: Ein Ritualbuch für Bestattungen aus dem Mittleren Reich , GM Beihefte 15 (Göttingen, 2014); ii) two additions to the bibliography on magical wands: the recently published S. Quirke,  Birth Tusks: The Armoury of Health in Context—Egypt 1800 BC  , MKS 3 (London, 2016); and a paper with a fresh approach in the interpretation of magical wands and their relation to netherworld ideas, not cited by the author: J. Rober-son, “The early history of ‘New Kingdom’ netherworld iconography: a late Middle Kingdom apotropaic wand reconsidered,” in D. Silverman, W.K Simpson, and J. Wegner, eds.,  Archaism and Innovation  (New Haven, 2009), 427–45; iii) the author should have included the latest study on the subject of royal titularies: R. Lepro-hon, The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary , WAW 33 (Atlanta, 2013); iv) the author explains the absence of lower limbs and feet in the case of female fertility figurines (37) as evidence for the practice of mutilation similar to the one observed in hieroglyphic inscriptions; he should contemplate the possibility that these figurines might have been used to prepare de-fensive perimeters in the same manner as he proposes magical wands did; v) in his discussion on the earliest mention of the vigil hours and CT 49, the author should have also cited M. Smith, The Mortuary Texts of Papyrus  BM 10507  , BM Demotic Papyri   3 (London, 1987), 25; and add A. Pries,  Die Stundenwachen im Osiriskult , SsR 2 (Wiesbaden, 2011), esp. 12, n. 35 (on the related CT 554); vi) the predominance of the wt -priest (89) in the earlier representations of rituals, holding a papyrus roll (Metjen, Fourth Dynasty Old Kingdom) and the development of the role of the lector into the mortuary practices has been discussed in A. Morales, “El ritu-al funerario en el Reino Antiguo: los oficiates,”  Aula Orientalis 20 (2002), 123–46; vii) instead of Pyramid Text spell 1329, which does not exist (137), the author should use PT for the spell number, and Pyr. for the section within; viii) contra  Forshaw (126), I believe that ancient Egyptians would have taken home the bodies of those fallen in military attacks and conflicts abroad to bury them within the borders of Egypt; ix) and fi-nally, in his bibliography, the author should have been more attentive to the capitalization of nouns in the titles of German works (e.g., Bergmann 1887, Blumen-thal 1977, Borchardt 1902–3, Möller 1913, and Quack 2006b).As a step forward, fulfilling the desiderata  of in-creased attention to particular figures in the religious and administrative realms, Roger Forshaw offers a re-markable study of the lector, contextualizing and dis-cussing his multiple duties in the secular and religious domains. I mention two additional mere trifles that do not detract from the value of the book: the lack of a general index or at least an index of the sources cited, which hampers the overall usefulness of the study; and the author’s redundancy in some sections of his study, mainly due to the self-contained nature of its chapters. All in all, readers interested in a broader study of the lector, with greater concern for the domains in which he functions, may wish to consult Forshaw’s book. For the more serious reader, this study provides a glimpse of the various axes of social, religious, and professional intersection in the understanding of ancient Egyptian secular and religious agents.Antonio J. Morales Universidad de Alcalá, MadridFrance Jamen,  Le cercueil de Padikhonsu au musée des  Beaux-Arts de Lyon (XXI  e  dynastie) . Studien zu al-tägyptischen Totentexten 20 (Wiesbaden: Harras-sowitz, 2016). ISBN 9783447103725. Pp. xii +240.As an in-depth study of the coffin set of the wab -priest, lector priest, and embalmer Padikhonsu, France Ja-men’s work provides a comprehensive analysis of this arguably unique inner coffin and mummy board. Ja-  354 JARCE 52 (2016) men’s main goals of the study are to attempt to reestab-lish a provenance, offer more secure dating, describe construction techniques, address the issue of reuse, and provide an analysis of both the textual and icono-graphic decoration of the coffin set. Taking at the out-set the assemblage as a whole, the author addresses the issues of provenance and dating in the first chapter. In addition, Jamen also provides a discussion of the name and titles of the deceased, drawing upon a portion of her dissertation work, which focuses on the social hier-archy of titles in the Twenty-First Dynasty. (The publi-cation of her dissertation is forthcoming and much an-ticipated by the author of this review.) Finally, the first chapter highlights the construction techniques, begin-ning with a wood analysis and ending with a discus-sion of the preparation layers beneath the polychrome decoration. The coffin lid, the coffin case, and the mummy board are the respective topics of the remaining three chapters (chapters 2–4). Each of these chapters follows a pattern of discussing first exterior and then interior decoration. Within each of these sections, equal atten-tion is paid to both the iconography and text, with full hieroglyphic transcription, transliteration, translation, and paleography (when appropriate) provided for all texts. It is in this area where the true value of the work lies. The translations of the texts, in particular the two liturgical formulas and chapter 1 of the Book of the Dead (located on the interior surface of the coffin lid) and the 10th and 11th hours of the Amduat (located on the interior surface of the mummy board), are of particular importance. They are unique in their loca-tion and format on a Twenty-First Dynasty coffin set. The author, despite the lack of comparative examples on coffins, offers a synoptic analysis by providing the reader with temporally related examples of these text, most of which are found on papyri. In addition to the introduction and three analyti-cal chapters, Jamen included nineteen color image plates, two appendices, two large-scale, loose-leaf dia-grams of the interior decoration of the coffin lid and mummy board, and a CD-ROM of high-resolution im-ages. These additional inclusions add immensely to the comprehensive study. The two appendices feature the full wood analysis by Dr. María Victoria Asensi Amóros and an explanation of the restoration processes under-taken in 2008, 2010, and 2012. These appendices pro-vide much more information and detail than the main body of the text would allow, and are an appreciated supplement to the book. The CD-ROM also added an extra dimension to the work, as it featured high qual-ity images of the individual elements of the coffin set both before and after restoration. The book and all of its constituent emblements is a comprehensive guide to the coffin set of Padikhonsu that features, with equal weight, each of the lenses of analysis it ventured to ob- jectively analyze.Studies that center on a single object, however, al-ways run the risk of falling short of providing a holis-tic study—connecting the piece to the larger corpus of related objects, providing the historical backdrop that makes the object significant, studying the object as part of a larger assemblage, and relating the piece in a social way to the people who created and used the object and objects like it. This work by Jamen generally fell into this trap. While at times the author did attempt to con-nect the coffin set of Padikhonsu to the larger religious, economic, and social milieu, there were several missed opportunities that would have created a truly intercon-nected work. The following two points illustrate these overlooked topics, which would have established this connection to the larger Twenty-First Dynasty context of this piece, without expanding the overall scope of the work.First, the examination of construction techniques was superbly investigated with regard to the study of the wood, but did not continue with this same level of detail into the topics of pigments and polychrome dec-oration application. The wood analysis was incredibly exhaustive, and the construction methods were well informed and described. These particular construc-tion choices were imbedded in a larger discussion of Twenty-First Dynasty coffins, and in particular the  stola  coffin group. After introducing the application of prep-aration layers for the decoration, however, little atten-tion was given to the application technique of the poly-chrome pigments. The study lacked a chemical analysis of the pigments, which would have complimented the wood analysis and provided answers to this next ma- jor step in the construction of the coffin set. With the knowledge that such analysis can be expensive and pos-sibly invasive to the coffin set, it is understandable that this type of analysis was unattainable within the scope of the project. Instead, the focus shifted from how the coffin was painted to what the coffin was decorated with, which broke the construction narrative that was so finely developed with the examination of the wood. Of course, the discussion of the choice of funer-ary iconography and text is an integral element of the study. This discussion centered largely on a thick de-scription of the images and the previously mentioned analysis of the text. While the religious significance of these funerary motifs were highlighted, the social ele-ment of why these particular motifs were chosen was underdeveloped, and left the reader questioning why such unique decoration would have been incorpo-rated into this coffin set. In addition, much organiza-tional emphasis was placed on where a text or image   BOOK REVIEWS 355 appeared in relationship to the body. There was, how-ever, little analysis as to why this might be the case, and if there is significance to the placement of, for example, the vignettes of Book of the Dead chapter 17 around the interior of the coffin lid in relationship to the text of Book of the Dead chapter 1 and/or the body of the deceased. Second, the issue of reuse, while addressed in the in-troductory chapter, was not considered fully, and led to ambiguity regarding the author’s dating. In the intro-duction, Jamen references the possibility that the coffin set of Padikhonsu could have had a previous owner. She does not, however, provide a dedicated and detailed treatment of reuse, despite the fact that the work of Dr. Kathlyn Cooney has illustrated that elements such as overpainted collars mismatched ledges of lids and cas-es (both of which this coffin set possesses) are typical signs of reuse (“Changing Burial Practices at the End of the New Kingdom: Defensive Adaptations in Tomb Commissions, Coffin Commissions, Coffin Decora-tion, and Mummification,”  JARCE 47 (2011), 3–44). In fact, Cooney’s research into reuse and the widespread discussion of institutionalized Twenty-First Dynasty re-use, which has become a major topic in coffin studies in recent years, did not feature at all in this work.Instead, the issue of reuse is mentioned only in con-nection to the problem of dating the coffin set within the confines of the Twenty-First Dynasty. For example,  Jamen identifies the inner coffin lid of Padikhonsu as being of Andrzej Niwi ń ski’s type IV-a, a group of cof-fin lids that Niwi ń ski states archaizes to the end of the Ramesside period, yet was introduced in the later part Twenty-First Dynasty. While Jamen does date the cof-fin set of Padikhonsu to the reign of the High Priest of Amun Pinedjem II (largely based on criteria estab-lished by René van Walsem), she offers   Niwi ń ski’s ty-pology as another line of evidence, but then suggests that the entirety of his type IV-a are  Ramesside coffin lids reused throughout the Twenty-First Dynasty. This is a probable conclusion that negates the argumenta-tion for his typology and its use value in coffin studies of this nature.The study of a discrete assemblage like the coffin set of Padikhonsu can provide valuable information regarding use of materials, construction of funerary objects, and choice of decoration. Being a compre-hensive analysis, a significant amount of information was compiled and presented to the reader in order to provide a highly detailed level of observation in well-structured manner. Several questions regarding the comparison between this coffin set and others from the Twenty-First Dynasty remain, as do additional conclu-sions pertaining to the reuse of the coffin set, the social status of the deceased Padikhonsu, and the economic backdrop of the Twenty-First Dynasty. With the inclu-sion of such elements in a more thorough manner, a link could be made between this singular coffin set and the larger corpus, drawing out the uniqueness of the objects that were the focus of this study. The strengths of this work are the meticulousness of the information presented and the cogent format in which this infor-mation was disseminated. A work that can diligently combine an art historical and textual approach and additionally connect to technological analyses of wood and construction techniques is very rare and a valuable contribution to the field of coffin studies. Jamen con-vincingly illustrates the merit of such in-depth research by presenting results that can be used to enlighten the larger social atmosphere of the Twenty-First Dynasty Theban priesthood.Marissa Stevens The University of California, Los AngelesRoger H. Guichard, Jr.,  Niebuhr in Egypt: European Science in a Biblical World   (Cambridge: Lutterworth, 2014). ISBN 9780718893354. Pp. xv + 344.The Royal Danish Expedition to Arabia, 1761–1767, was one of the great ventures of eighteenth-century exploration. It was charged with the exploration of southern Arabia, or Arabia Felix as it was known, an area that accords in general with present-day Yemen where an especially pure Arabic was thought to persist. Recording it would not only open a new dimension in orientalist studies but also provide insights into bibli-cal Hebrew though Semitic similarities. That was all in the spirit of the religious Enlightenment in Europe, but the objectives mandated by the sponsors of the expe-dition went much further. Its members were charged with providing answers to dozens of specific questions of historical, social, geographical, and linguistic nature, even verifying the existence of “sirens” in the Red Sea.The expedition’s tragic, sordid, and heroic course has been told in several accounts of Arabian travel such as Kathryn Tidrick’s  Heart Beguiling Araby  (1981) and Richard Trench’s  Arabian Travels  (1987). Thorkild Hansen wrote a historical novel about it. Scholarly in-terest has increased. Just one year before the appear-ance of Guichard’s book, Lawrence J. Baack published his Undying Curiosity: Carsten Niebuhr and the Royal  Danish Expedition to Arabia  (2014). It is regrettable that Guichard was not able to benefit by that major work before completing his account of Niebuhr in Egypt.The carefully selected members of the Royal Danish Expedition to Arabia possessed a wide assortment of
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