Assistens Kirkegård Nørrebros Runddel, Metro Cityring Project - PDF

Description
Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830, Excavation Report KØBENHAVNS MUSEUM MUSEUM OF COPENHAGEN / ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPORT Assistens Kirkegård Nørrebros Runddel, Metro Cityring Project KBM 3830, Nørrebro,

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 273
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information
Category:

Advertisement

Publish on:

Views: 34 | Pages: 273

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Transcript
Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830, Excavation Report KØBENHAVNS MUSEUM MUSEUM OF COPENHAGEN / ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPORT Assistens Kirkegård Nørrebros Runddel, Metro Cityring Project KBM 3830, Nørrebro, Trinitatis Sogn Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt Kulturstyrelsen j.nr.: /KBM-0015 Sian Anthony, Jens Winther Johannsen, Marie Louise S. Jørkov & Samuel Keenan. Museum of Copenhagen 2016 Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830, Excavation Report Københavns Museum Vesterbrogade København V Telefon: Fax: Museum of Copenhagen 2016 Front cover: Excavation in Area 4 looking north to Nørrebros Runddel; Archaeologists at work in April 2010; Elaborated coffin (G799); Elaborated coffin and skeleton with many personal gifts (G518). Forside: Udgravning i område 4 set fra syd med Nørrebros Runddel i baggrunden; Arkæologer igang med udgravningsarbejde, April 2010; udsnit af rigt forsiret kiste (G799); skelet og gravgaver i rigt forsigt kiste (G518) Museum of Copenhagen 2016 Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830, Excavation Report Contents Abstract... 5 Resumé Introduction and administrative data... 8 Metro Project and Københavns Museum... 8 Site location... 8 Scope of the project... 8 Project staff Consultants and contractors Organisation of the report Administrative data Cultural historical background and topography The site before the cemetery Establishment and development of the cemetery Organisation of the cemetery according to historic sources The gravediggers Trinitatis parish, Copenhagen Comparable investigations from Denmark Comparable material from international investigations Topography Archaeological background Cultural historical potential and aims Overall project objectives and themes Prehistoric/pre-cemetery activity Urbanisation in the 19 th -20 th centuries Economic and demographic cycles Urban life and culture Methodology Site facilities Principle documents Excavation methodology Field procedures Documentation methodology Finds registration Osteology Sampling methodology Reburial procedures Archive material Museum of Copenhagen 2016 Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830, Excavation Report 6 Results The prehistoric remains The cemetery Finds Osteological results Scientific analysis/environment Cultural historical interpretation Prehistoric settlement The cemetery Osteological interpretation The people and society Project Assessment and Research Potential Project logistics Project methodology Preservation conditions Finds material Sample analysis Cultural historical assessment The potential for future research References Literature Archaeological reports and archive material Museum of Copenhagen strategy documents Internet references Abbreviations Appendices Museum of Copenhagen 2016 Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830, Excavation Report Abstract The development of a new Metro line in the city of Copenhagen prompted archaeological investigations by the Copenhagen Museum throughout the city and its environs. One of the four major excavations resulting from this project was at Assistens cemetery, 1km north-west of the city centre. The creation of a new Metro station at Nørrebros Runddel resulted in an excavation in Area G in the north-easternmost corner of the cemetery. The excavation took place between December 2009 and February Assistens cemetery remains a site of great cultural and historical importance for Copenhagen and is still a working cemetery. Opened in 1760 it was created to remove the cemeteries away from the increasingly crowded city, thus the new cemetery encapsulates contemporary ideals of urban planning, health concerns and social reactions to the new and demanding environments of the 19 th and 20 th centuries. The excavated area was incorporated into the cemetery in 1806 and was reserved for parishioners from Trinitatis Church in the city centre. Cemetery protocols record that coffin burials took place in the area until 1984 and cremation burials until The research aims of the project were designed to enable the integration of all the evidence from the graves: archaeological, anthropological and documentary to allow future research into burial traditions in the 19 th and 20 th centuries. The methods used have aimed to gain the full potential out of the stratigraphic, archaeological information. The project has also maintained a balance between scientific enquiry and an inherent respect for the ethics of investigating modern graves. In total 854 in situ inhumations (burials within coffins) and 81 cremation burials were excavated. In addition to this, information was found relating to the active life of the cemetery, such as landscaping features. Stratigraphical data from the grave cuts and coffins provide evidence for the spatial management of the cemetery in relation to the placing of new graves and the removal of earlier graves. The excavation has provided direct evidence about how the cemetery was organised and the professionalization of the gravediggers. The coffins and accompanying material culture have provided insights into the interaction between the mourners and the funeral industry. In this process the societal attitudes to death and disposal of the dead are revealed. The skeletal assemblage investigated in cooperation with the archaeological information has given invaluable information on demography, families and lifestyles. The potential of this investigation is vast; it is the first in Denmark to systematically excavate a large cemetery from this period. Within the local context it aids an overall study of the chronological aspect of burial traditions and attitudes to death in the post-reformation period. The large osteological sample size from Assistens cemetery will allow creation of statistically significant data sets that can be compared with documentary data and thus contribute to ongoing debates concerning the effects of urbanisation and industrialisation on the health of individuals and populations. The results also have an international significance, being comparable to other contemporary cemeteries in Europe and America. This investigation opens up new archaeological perspectives onto the historical period, our recent past, reflecting both the world of the dead and that of the living. Museum of Copenhagen 2016 Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830, Excavation Report Resumé I forbindelse med Metroens udvidelse foretog Københavns Museum en række arkæologiske undersøgelser i København både inden og uden for voldene. Den ene af fire større udgravninger foregik på Assistens Kirkegård, der ligger cirka en kilometer nordvest for Københavns bymidte. Ved etableringen af metrostationen ved Nørrebros Runddel blev en del af Afdeling G i kirkegårdens nordøstligste hjørne undersøgt. Undersøgelsen foregik mellem september 2009 og februar Assistens Kirkegård er af væsentlig kulturel og historisk betydning for København og fungerer endnu som kirkegård. Den blev etableret i 1760, da man ønskede at rykke kirkegårdene ud af den stadig tættere befolkede bymidte. Kirkegården er således udtryk for samtidens byplanlægning, sundhedshensyn og befolkningens tilpasning til de nye krævende livsbetingelser i det 19. og 20. århundrede. Det undersøgte område blev indlemmet i kirkegården i 1806 og var forbeholdt indbyggere i Trinitatis Sogn. Den sidste begravelse i området blev foretaget i 1984, mens den sidste urnenedsættelse skete i Projektets målsætning var at integrere gravenes arkæologiske, antropologiske og historiske data i undersøgelsen, for således bedst muligt at kunne facilitere fremtidtigt forskningsarbejde. Målet med de anvendte udgravningsmetoder har bl.a. været at få det fulde udbytte ud af de stratigrafiske data. Der har samtidigt skulle opretholdes en balance mellem den videnskabelige målsætning og de etiske hensyn i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af grave fra en så sen historisk periode. I alt blev 854 jordfæstegrave (begravelser i kister) og 81 urnegrave undersøgt. Dertil kommer en række andre vidnesbyrd om menneskelig aktivitet på kirkegården, herunder gravernes arbejdsmetoder. Gravenes stratigrafi vidner om kirkegårdens rumlige organisering, og hvordan gamle gravsteder blev nedlagt og søndergravet når nye gravsteder skulle etableres. Kisterne og de tilhørende genstandsfund har givet indsigt i sammenspillet mellem de afdødes efterladte og begravelsesindustrien og er dermed med til at kaste lys over periodens generelle indstilling til døden såvel som samfundets håndtering af afdøde. Sammenholdt med de arkæologiske data har undersøgelsen af skeletmaterialet givet væsentlige oplysninger om periodens demografi og livsførelse. Undersøgelsen har stort forskningsmæssigt potentiale. Det er den første danske udgravning af en kirkegård fra dette tidsafsnit og muliggør således et overordnet studie af den kronologiske udvikling i begravelsesskikke og indstillingen til døden i den efterreformatoriske periode i Danmark. Det store osteologiske materiale muliggør statistiske undersøgelser, som kan sammenlignes med historisk og arkæologisk data og derved bidrage til den fortløbende debat omkring urbaniseringens og industrialiseringens betydning for sundhedstilstand for det enkelte individ såvel som den samlede befolkning. Undersøgelsen har ligeledes betydning for den internationale forskning, idet den vil give sammenligningsgrundlag for andre kirkegårdsudgravninger i den vestlige verden. Idet resultaterne afspejler både de levende og de dødes verden, åbner undersøgelsen samlet set op for nye arkæologiske perspektiver for denne sene historiske periode - vores nære fortid. Museum of Copenhagen 2016 Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830, Excavation Report Archaeological periods: Late Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, Late Post-medieval, 20 th century Feature types: Graves, coffins, brick vaults, rubbish pits, gravestones, prehistoric house/settlement? Key words: Cemetery, inhumations, coffins, coffin furniture, grave decorations, gravediggers, family plots, single graves, cremations, prehistoric, industrialisation, skeletons, osteology, burial, grave goods, Post-medieval, Modern Museum of Copenhagen 2016 1 Introduction and administrative data Metro Project and Københavns Museum The excavation on the Assistens Kirkegård was undertaken as part of the new Metro Cityring project which will provide a new transportation system to the surrounding outskirts of the city. The site at Assistens cemetery was designated as a station location - Nørrebros Runddel, where there would be significant archaeological material and sensitive remains that required archaeological excavations. The work was conducted by the Museum of Copenhagen (KBM) which is responsible for archaeological work within the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg. Site location The cemetery is located in the Nørrebro area, to the north west of the main city centre ofcopenhagenonzealand (Fig 1). Therefore it lies outside of the main focus of urban medieval and early historical activity. The cemetery is bounded by Nørrebrogade to the north-east, Jagtvej to the north-west, Hans Tavsens Park to the south-east and Kapelvej to the south-west. The cemetery was initially founded in 1760 as a small section next to Kapelvej but was extended to the north and west throughout the 19 th century; it is still in use as a cemetery. The excavation was limited to a small section in the northern corner of the cemetery, formed by the junction of Nørrebrogade and Jagtvej. This part of the cemetery was opened in 1806 and continued as a working cemetery until the excavation started. The area is centred on the proposed entrance to the station which would face to the north, to the Nørrebros Runddel and around an historic building the Sexton s or gravediggers house (graverbolig). This section of the cemetery was reserved for residents of the Trinitatis Parish which is within the city centre of Copenhagen and centred on the parish church of Trinitatis Kirke, famous for the Rundetaarn. Scope of the project The construction of the new station and related ancillary works such as service trenches required the removal and documentation of a number of burials within the site. The remit of this project required only that appropriate recording and documentation of the archaeological material should take place. The development involved the demolition of workshop buildings on the site with the exception of a single protected building (the gravediggers house, graverboligen). This was moved to enable the station to be constructed and will be replaced in the same position after the completion of the Metro station. This work and protection of the building did not fall under the remit of this project. Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830 Fig 1 Location of site within Denmark and Copenhagen (Kirkegårdens placering i Danmark og København) The aim of this project was to create a complete, thorough and accurate set of data that can be used for future research. This is stated within the document covering the overall archaeological design aspects of the Metro Cityring project which was approved by the Danish Agency for Culture, (Kulturstyrelsen, KUST) in the autumn of 2009 (Thomasson 2009). The excavations are designed to allow this future research to be undertaken to enhance the archaeological and historical knowledge that can be gained from the site and related to the development of Copenhagen. 9 Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830 However the excavation was not carried out under jurisdiction of the Danish Museum law (Bekendtgørelse af museumsloven nr. 1505), since the area was property of the Church. Instead it was carried out as an ethical clearance on the wish of the Metro company andtherefore under a separate agreement between the Museum of Copenhagen and the Metro company (Metroselskabet). Despite this, the work carried out did conform to KUST standards and guidelines, in many ways exceeding the work that would have been allowed under the Museum law. A significant issue in the project was the ethical requirements inherent in a cemetery excavation of such a modern period. All the coffins, skeletons and their associated artefacts were retained on site, recorded and reburied in a new location within the cemetery during the fieldwork phase of the excavation. This decision was made by the Museum of Copenhagen in 2009 (Københavns Bymuseum 2009). This rapid registration and reburial of the archaeological features and finds required that the recording and documentation at the site was of the highest quality as there would be no further opportunity to re-document the material. Project staff The excavation was led by Sian Anthony as Excavation Leader and Field Leaders Hanna Dahlström, Anna Dunphy (until August 2010) and Stine Damsbo Winther (from August 2010). Marie Louise S. Jørkov was responsible for the osteological documentation. Archaeologists included: Brendan Fagan, Fredrik Grehn, Terje Stafseth who were responsible for specialised roles on the excavation. Archaeologists on the project included: Michael Alrø Jensen, Stine Damsbo Winther, Signe Føg Morgensen, Karen Green Therkelsen (who registered prehistoric finds and created some of the figures in this report), Kirstine Haase (who registered some of the finds), Lars Haugesten, osteologist Lise Harvig, John Howorth, Samuel Keenan, Mette Kjelstrup, Jacob Mosekilde, Rachel Morgan, Charlotte Rimstad (who was responsible for processing skeletal material and also registered textiles), Claus Rohden Olsen, Karin Roug, osteologist Helene Wilhelmsson. Students included: Anja Borch-Nielsen, Lise Christensen, Jens Hansen, Mie Pedersen, Ingeborg Sæhle, Maria Louise Tvede, Louise Melchior Rasmussen, Zenon Topagic. Further assistance was given by Hannah Butterfield during the fieldwork and Amalie Møller Højbjerre during the post-excavation process. Petter Linde and Kennet Stark assisted with IT and IntraSiS support. Stuart Whatley gave advice and assistance with finds material. Work on historical sources was undertaken by Inger Wiene, and students Pelle Skrubbeltrang and Katharina Zander. Additional research was undertaken by Lise Christensen. The post-excavation work and report editing was led by Sian Anthony and the principal authors are Sian Anthony, Samuel Keenan, Jens Winther Johannsen and Marie Louise S. Jørkov. Additional contributions were by Hanna Dahlström, Charlotte Rimstad (textiles), Lars Haugesten (wedding rings) and Kirstine Haase (cemetery-era ceramics, clay pipes and glass). Joakim Thomasson as the leader of the Antiquarian section at KBM guided the project throughout its stages and created the initial report framework. Lene Høst- Madsen was the overall project leader for the Metro Cityring project. Grateful thanks and acknowledgements are made to all the people who worked on the excavation in 10 Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830 sometimes difficult environments who provided interpretations and created the foundation for the report writing through their work. Consultants and contractors Thanks are also made to Professor Dr Niels Lynnerup for initial advice when planning for the project; Matthew Law, doctoral student at Cardiff University, for information concerning the conch shells; Per Agner Bach Stougaard, consultant with the Danish Police Criminal Technology Centre, for forensics help; Adrian Miles, Senior Archaeologist from Museum of London Archaeology, for information and discussion concerning London excavations and historic cemeteries in general; Mette Marie Hald for botanical analysis; Irene Skals for assistance with textile analysis; Rachel Ives and AOC Archaeology Group London for generously providing the osteology database; Niels Albertsen from Santax Medico for help and guidance with the x-ray machine; Dr. Pia Bennike, Dr. Niels Dyrgaard Jensen and Dr. Steen Holger Hansen for help, academic advice and fruitful discussions; Tom Olsen from the Center for Kirkegårde for patience in organising the reburials along with the staff from the cemetery for their good humoured strength and assistance with the burials and Carsten Hansen and staff from NCC for generous assistance and patience throughout the excavation. Beredskabsstyrrelsen kindly provided stretchers. Organisation of the report The report is designed to provide a full statement concerning not just the results and archaeological interpretation of the work but also to describe in detail the methods undertaken and some of the theoretical basis. It also examines and assesses the processes and procedures created to deal with the archaeology. This provides a baseline - and a discussion point for similar future excavations. The aim of the report is to provide three main points of information: a guide to the data and documentation material, especially for the IntraSiS database which will provide access for interested users, an assessment of the results and a basic cultural historical interpretation. 11 Metro Cityring Assistens Kirkegård KBM 3830 Administrative data Case number KUAS Case number KBM /KBM-0015 (Metro Cityring) KBM3830 SB-number County Municipality/City Area Parish Street/block København København Nørrebro Trinitatis Assistens Kirkegård, corner of Jagtvej and Nørrebrogade Duration field phase December 2009-February 2011 Excavation management Investigated area (m 2 ) and % of total Investigated volume (m 3 ) and % of total Coordination system DKTM zon 3 X-coordinate Y-coordinate Height system DVR 90 Metres above sea level c 9.4m Contractor/Client Archive material Finds material Sian Anthony (Udgravningsleder), Hanna Dahlström (Feltleder), Anna Dunphy (Felt Leder) and Stine Damsbo Winther (Feltleder) m 2, 100% investigated Full excavation m 3 Targeted excavation m 3 1m excavation m 3 Total excavated m 3, 100% investigated Metroselskabet I/S Paper archive including osteological doc
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks