Adaptation and Validation of the Hope Index for Brazilian Adolescents Adaptação e Validação da The Hope Index para Adolescentes Brasileiros

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Adaptation and Validation of the Hope Index for Brazilian Adolescents Adaptação e Validação da The Hope Index para Adolescentes Brasileiros

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  666 disponível em www.scielo.br/prc Adaptation and Validation of the Hope Indexfor Brazilian Adolescents  Adaptação e Validação da The Hope Index para Adolescentes Brasileiros Juliana Cerentini Pacico * , Cristian Zanon, Micheline Roat Bastianello & Claudio Simon Hutz Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil   Abstract  This study aimed at adapting and validating the Staats Hope Index for Brazilian adolescents. Participantswere 450 high school students aged from 14 to 18 years old being 56% females. They responded to theStaats Hope Index, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) and RosenbergSelf-Esteem Scale. A factor analysis extracted two factors, replicating the structure of the srcinal scale.Coefficients alphas were .83 and .81, for each factor, respectively. The correlations of the Hope Indexfactors with dispositional hope, optimism and self-esteem were similar to the findings reported in theliterature and indicated convergent validity. The results indicate that the Hope Index is valid to be used inBrazil and that hope is perceived similarly by Brazilians and Americans despite of some cultural differ-ences.  Keywords : Hope; Optimism; Positive Psychology.  Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar e validar a escala The Hope Index para adolescentes brasileiros.Participaram 450 estudantes do ensino médio, sendo 56% do sexo feminino. As idades variaram entre 14e 18 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram the Hope Index, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Revised LifeOrientation Test (LOT-R) e Rosenberg Self-esteem   Scale. A análise fatorial revelou duas dimensões,conforme a estrutura srcinal da escala com valores do coeficiente alfa   de 0,83 e 0,81. As correlações dosfatores da escala The Hope Index com esperança disposicional, otimismo e autoestima foram similares aosachados da literatura e indicam validade convergente. Esses resultados indicam que a escala é válida parauso no Brasil e que Brasileiros e Americanos percebem a esperança de modo similar, apesar de algumasdiferenças culturais.  Palavras-chave : Esperança; Otimismo; Psicologia Positiva. The aim of this study was to adapt The Hope Index,developed by Staats (1989), for adolescents in southernBrazil. Several authors have reported on the associationof hope with adaptive behaviors, self-esteem, optimismand school performance (Bellizzi & Blank, 2006;Chang, 2003; Roesch & Vaughn, 2006; Valle, Huebner,& Suldo, 2006), as well as with efficient coping stra-tegies (Chimich & Nekolaichuk, 2004). Other studiesfound that individuals with high hope scores are lessaffected by depression (Geffken et al., 2006; Snyder etal., 1997) or by anxiety (Arnau, Rosen, Finch, Rhudy,& Fortunato, 2007; Niejodeka, Gottschalkb, & Janusze-ka, 1999). Their adherence to treatments and treatmentresults are superior, and their quality of life is better  because hope is associated with health (Nekolaichuk &Maguire, 1999; Staats, 1991). These findings may be partly explained by the association of hope with thefunctioning of the immunological system, which, whenstimulated, promotes faster patient recovery (Staats,1987). Moreover, individuals with high hope scores aremore likely to initiate activities and remain engaged intheir performance (Staats, 1989). No consensual definition of hope is found in the lite-rature. According to Staats (1987, 1989), hope refers tofuture events that individuals wish to happen, and is madeup of two components, one affective and one cognitive.The affective component is associated with the fact thatwhat is expected (wished) for the future is a pleasurableevent or has good consequences. The cognitive componentrefers to the expectations that a future event is likely tooccur. Staats suggested that this construct be divided intoaffective and cognitive hope. *  Address: Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul,Ramiro Barcelos, 2600/101, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil,CEP 90035-003. Phone (55) 513308 5246. E-mails: jucerentini@hotmail.com, cristianzanon@yahoo.com.br  mbastianello@hotmail.com and claudio.hutz@terra.com.br  This article is part of the thesis of the first author, whose project title is “  Adaptação e Validação de Instrumentos para Avaliação de Esperança” . It started in 2009 andended in 2010. This work was registered by the EthicsComitee at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sulunder the code 2009058 and was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico(CNPq) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pes-soal de Nível Superior (CAPES Foundation).  667 Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24  (4), 666-670. In 1987, Staats developed the Expected Balance Scale(EBS) to measure affective hope. Although this scale hasa cognitive component, that is, the need to think aboutthe future, Staats (1989, p. 367) claims that its focus is onemotions, as “15 items contain the verb feel”. It was basedon the Bradburn Affective Balance Scale (ABS); parti-cipants use a 5-point likert scale to rate 18 items, nine positive and nine negative. Affective hope was, thus,defined by Staats (1989) as the difference between the positive and negative expectations about a certain event placed weeks in the future. To evaluate the cognitiveaspects of hope, another instrument, the Hope Index, wasdeveloped to measure cognitive hope, defined as theinteraction between wishes and expectations (Staats,1989). This scale was derived from a set of items listed by people that were asked about things or circumstancesthat they expected to happen. The most frequent answerswere selected for the scale items. This instrument mea-sures only individual (defined, specified) expectationsand, therefore, is in contrast with the Life OrientationTest (LOT-R), which measures generalized expectationswithout specifying the object (Scheier & Carver, 1985).Therefore, according to Staats (1989), the construct thatit approaches differs from optimism. This study adaptedand validated the Hope Index, developed by Staats (1989),for adolescents in southern Brazil. Method  Participants Participants were 450 students (56% girls) attendingthe second and third years of regular high school. Their ages ranged from 14 to 18 years, and their mean agewas 16.8 ( SD =3.4). Of this total, 363 studied in a publicschool and 87 in a private institution, in southern Brazil.This convenience sample was made up of volunteers,and all participants had their parents’ consent to parti-cipate in the research.  Instruments The participants completed the Hope Index (Staats,1989), adapted to use in Brazil. The srcinal instrumenthas 16 items and three columns. Items are listed in thesecond column. In the first column there is a 0-to-5 Likertscale that the participants use to indicate how much theywish the occurrence of the situations suggested by theitems: 0 indicates not at all , and 5, very much . In thethird column, there is a similar scale for participants toindicate how likely to occur they expect the situationsdescribed in the items to be: again, 0 indicates not at all ,and 5, very much . Therefore, each item has two scores:one for how much the participant wishes the situationdescribed in the item, and the other, how firmly they believe that what was described by the item will occur.These scores are multiplied one by one and added up inthe end to produce a global score of cognitive hope.Therefore, this scale ranges from 0 to 480 for the firstfactor and from 0 to 180 for the second factor.The srcinal instrument has two subscales. The eightitems that refer to oneself compose the hope-self subscale,and the other items, that refer to others or to globalcircums-tances, form the hope-other subscale. Scores canalso be divided into wishes and expectations. Staats (1989)says that the internal consistency (Coefficient alpha) “of the Hope Index and its scales ranged from .72 to .85.” (p.372). The instrument used in our study was adapted fromthe srcinal Staats scale (1989) by Pacico, Bastianello,Zanon and Hutz (2010). The Brazilian adaptation for adults has the same structure that the srcinal scale butfive extra items were added in the hope self factor after acontent validity study. The five items were maintained inthe scale used in the present study to verify if they wouldalso load in the same factor as it did with the adults.To evaluate convergent validity, the following instru-ments were used: the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale(Pacico et al., 2010; Snyder et al., 1991), the revised LifeOrientation test (Bastianello, Pacico, Zanon, & Hutz, 2010;Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Hutz & Zanon, 2011; Rosenberg, 1989).The Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991)has 12 items. Four refer to agency, four, to pathways, andthe other four are fillers. The items are rated using a 5- point likert scale, in which 1 indicates completely false and5, completely true. The internal consistency of the srcinalinstrument (Coefficient alpha) ranged from .71 to .84.The revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) evaluatesdispositional optimism (Scheier et al., 1994) and wasadapted and validated for Brazilian adolescents byBastianello et al. (2010). The Brazilian version of thisinstrument has 11 items, four of which are distractors. Theadapted LOT-R has good internal consistency, similar tothat reported in the srcinal study (Coefficient alpha = .80).The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Hutz & Zanon,2011) has 10 items that evaluate self-esteem in one singledimension. This instrument has adequate psychometriccharacteristics (Coefficient alpha = .90).  Procedures The instruments were applied collective in the class-room by two of the authors. The students receivedinformation about data confidentiality, voluntary parti-cipation, and privacy. After that, the booklet with theinstruments was handed out. Instructions to completethe scales were given collectively and were also repro-duced in the heading of each instrument. Results  Hope Scale Component Structure and Reliability The 21 items of the Hope Index underwent analysis of the major components using oblimin rotation. The scree plot (Figure 1) suggests that the best solution would bethe extraction of two factors. These factors correspond tothose identified in the srcinal scale as hope-self and hope-other. The eigenvalue of hope-self was 6.3 and explained29.9% of the total variance. The eigenvalue of hope-other   Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24  (4), 666-670. 668 was 1.9 and explained 9.1% of the total variance. TheKaiser-Meyer-Olkin index, which evaluates sampling ade-quacy for this type of analysis, was .89, and the result of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant (  p <.001).Communality values ranged from .20 to .76. All the itemshad factor loadings greater than .32 (Table 1). Moreover,internal consistency of the scale was good, with a Cron- bach’s alpha of .83 for hope-self and .81 for hope-other.There were no gender differences in hope-self [ t (390)= 1.5,  p  > .05]. However, women (  M  =88.4; SD =31.4) hada significantly greater mean value than men (  M  =80.3; SD =34.8) in hope-other ( t   (411) = 2.5,  p  < .02).Table 1  Factor Loadings and Psychometric Characteristics of the Hope Index Items Hope-Self Hope-Other 1.762.363.524.745.676.637.678.309.3910.4911.5812.4213.8614.8815.3216.8417.6418.5719.5920.5621.45Eigenvalue6.31.9Mean293.384.9Standard Deviation50.333.1Explained Variance29.9%9.1%Coefficient alpha.83.81  Evidence of Convergent Validity for the Hope Index Table 2 shows the results of the correlation analysis. Asexpected, cognitive hope was positively correlated withdispositional hope, self-esteem and optimism, which provides evidence of convergent validity for the scale.Table 2 Correlations between dispositional hope, hope-self,hope-others, optimism and self-esteem Variables12341 - Hope-self-2 - Hope-other.53-3 - Dispositional hope.46.21-4 - Optimism.47.21.49-5 - Self-esteem.46.24.55.60  Note . All correlations are significant (  p < .01) Discussion Initially, results showed that the factor structure of theBrazilian version replicated that of the srcinal scale. Asin the srcinal scale, the first factor comprised hope-self items, and the second, hope-other items. The items hadexpected factor loadings. The extra items inserted in thescale had loadings in the hope-self factor.Staats (1989) did not find sex differences in her studies.In our sample, there were also no sex differences in hope-self, but there was a small but significant difference in  Figure 1 . Scree plot   of items in the cognitive hope scale.  669 Pacico, J. C., Zanon, C., Bastianello, M. R. & Hutz, C. S. (2011). Adaptation and Validation of the Hope Index for Brazilian Adolescents. hope-other, and women had higher scores in this type of hope than men. This discrepancy may be only an occa-sional result that other studies should attempt to replicateit; or it might be an indication of a cultural difference thatmight deserve further investigation.To check for evidence of convergent validity, the scalewas correlated with the optimism, self-esteem and dispo-sitional hope scores. Both hope-self and hope-other are positively correlated with self-esteem and optimism,which is good evidence of convergent validity of this ins-trument and corroborates findings reported by severalauthors that reported similar results (Carver & Scheier,2002; Magaletta & Oliver, 1999; Stajkovic, 2006).However, hope-self was more closely associated with theother constructs than hope-other. This may have happened because the constructs used to evaluate convergent vali-dity referred to characteristics associated with the indivi-duals rather than with their contexts; therefore, hope-self showed stronger correlations with self-esteem, optimismand dispositional hope.The correlation between cognitive and dispositionalhope was expected because both instruments measuredifferent dimensions of the same broad construct.However, the correlation of dispositional hope with hope-other yielded a lower value ( r  =.20) than the correlationwith hope-self ( r  =.46). Dispositional hope is composedof agency and pathways developed by individuals(Snyder et al., 1991). Individual, rather than contextual,characteristics might, thus, explain why the correlationwith hope-self was greater than the correlation withhope-other.The new items that were included in the scale representwishes that were not expressed in the srcinal instrument but were mentioned by Brazilian adults in earlier studies.These items were identified using the same procedure thatStaats (1989) adopted to prepare items for the srcinalscale. The results showed that, among the most-desiredfuture outcomes for the local population, were some thatwere not included in the srcinal scale: sexual satisfaction,love relationships, children’s success, conditions to helpother people, and conditions to travel and know new places. This finding points to possible cultural differences between populations. However, despite these differencesand the inclusion of the extra items, the associations of the scale with other constructs, such as optimism, self-esteem and dispositional hope, were equivalent to thefinding in previous studies.Although five new items were added to the srcinalinstrument, the srcinal 16 items were kept. This indicatesthat, although applied in a different culture from the onefor which it was srcinally built, the scale successfullyassessed cognitive hope. The inclusion of the new itemsrevealed particular characteristics and especially impor-tant wishes in the Brazilian culture that distinguish it fromthe American culture. It may be interesting to developnew studies to assess the impact of these cultural diffe-rences controlling other variables, especially personalityfactors. Finally, these results point out to the need of conducting content validity studies when adapting newinstruments to different cultures. References Arnau, R. C., Rosen, D. H., Finch, J. F., Rhudy, J. L., &Fortunato, V. J. (2007). Sexual satisfaction, love relationships,children’s success, conditions to help other people, andconditions to travel and know new places.  Journal of  Personality, 75 , 43-64.Bastianello, M. R., Pacico, J. C., Zanon, C., & Hutz, C. S.(2010).  Adaptation e validation of the Revised LifeOrientation Test for Brasilian Adolescents.  Manuscriptsubmitted for publication.Bellizzi, K. M., & Blank, T. O. (2006). Predicting posttraumaticgrowth in breast cancer survivors.  Health Psychology, 25 (1),47-56.Chang, E. C. (2003). A critical appraisal and extension of hopetheory in middle-aged men and women: Is it important todistinguish agency and pathways components?  Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 22 , 121-143.Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2002). The hopeful optimist  .Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Chimich, W. T., & Nekolaichuk, C. L. (2004). Exploring thelinks between depression, integrity, and hope in the elderly.  Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 49 (7), 428-433.Geffken, G. R., Storch, E. A., Duke, D. C., Monaco, L., Lewin,A. B., & Goodman, W. K. (2006). Hope and coping in familymembers of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20 (5), 614-629.Hutz, S. C., & Zanon, C. (2011). Revisão da adaptação, valida-ção e normatização da Escala de Autoestima de Rosemberg(Revision of the adaptation, validation and normatization of the Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale.  Avaliação Psicológica,10 (1), 41-49.Magaletta, P. R., & Oliver, J. M. (1999). The hope construct,will, and ways: Their relations with self-efficacy, optimism,and general well-being.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55 (5),539-551. Niejodeka, H. I., Gottschalkb, L. A., & Januszeka, M. (1999).Anxiety and hope during the course of three different medicalillnesses: A longitudinal study .    Psychotherapy and Psycho- somatics, 68 ,   304-312. Nekolaichuk, C. L., Jevne, R. F., & Maguire, T. O. (1999).Structuring the meaning of hope in health and illness. Social Science & Medicine, 48 , 591-605.Pacico, J. C., Bastainello, M. R., Zanon, C., & Hutz, C. S.(2010). Adaptation e validation of Adult Dispositional Hopescale for Adolescents. Manuscript submitted for publication.Roesch, S. C., & Vaughn, A. A. (2006). Evidence for the factorialvalidity of the Dispositional Hope Scale, cross-ethnic andcross-gender measurement equivalence.  European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22 , 78-84.Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image (Rev. Ed.). Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, andhealth: Assessment and implications of generalized outcomeexpectancies.  Health Psychology, 4,  219-247.  Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24  (4), 666-670. 670 Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994).Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety,self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the LifeOrientation Test.  Journal of Personality and Social  Psychology, 67  , 1063-1078.Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving,L. M., Sigmon, S. T., et al. (1991). The will and the ways:Development and validation of an individual-differencesmeasure of hope.  Journal of Personality and Social  Psychology, 6  , 570-585.Snyder, C. R., Hoza, B., Pelham, W. E., Rapoff, M., Ware, L.,Danovsky, M., et al. (1997). The development and validationof the Children’s Hope scale.  Journal of Pediatric Psychology,22 , 399-421.Stajkovic, A. D. (2006). Development of a core confidence-higher order construct.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (6),1208-1224.Staats, S. (1987). Hope: Expected positive affect in an adultsample.  Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148 (3), 357-364.Staats, S. (1989). Hope - A comparison of two self-reportmeasures for adults.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 53 (2),366-375.Staats, S. (1991). Quality of live and affect in older persons:Hope, time frames and training effects. Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 1 ,   21-30.Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2006). An analysisof Hope as a psychological strength.  Journal of School  Psychology, 44 (5), 393-406.  Recebido: 27/10/20101ª revisão: 10/01/2011 Aceite final: 20/01/2011
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