4. Нылымше урок: Сапаевмыт дек уна-влак толыт - PDF

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61 4. Нылымше урок: Сапаевмыт дек уна-влак толыт I. Text Серге: Елу: Серге: Елу: Янош: Елу: Янош: Серге: Янош: Каталин: Елу: Янош: Елу: Каталин: Серге: Елу: Янош: Track 19 / 4_1.mp3 - Елу, таче мемнан

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61 4. Нылымше урок: Сапаевмыт дек уна-влак толыт I. Text Серге: Елу: Серге: Елу: Янош: Елу: Янош: Серге: Янош: Каталин: Елу: Янош: Елу: Каталин: Серге: Елу: Янош: Track 19 / 4_1.mp3 - Елу, таче мемнан деке венгр уна-влак толыт. - Пеш сай. Кунам толыт? - Кастене. Кызыт мый пашаш каем. Кас марте чеверын. - Чеверын. (Уна-влак толыт.) - Поро кас лийже! - Поро кас! Толза, толза. Ме тендам вучена. Те марла кутыреда? - Изиш кутырена. - Палыме лийза: тиде мыйын ватем. Тудын лӱмжӧ Елу. А тиде мемнан йочана-влак: Ануш ден Эчан. - Палыме лийына. Ме Венгрий гыч улына. Мыйын лӱмем Янош. - Мыйын лӱмем Каталин. - Те могай ола гыч улыда? - Ме Будапештыште илена. - Мемнан Йошкар-Олана тыланда келша мо? - Мотор, ужар ола. Тендан олаштыда мыняр еҥ ила? (кокшӱдӧ кандашле тӱжем). - Шергакан уна-влак, ме тендам ӱстел деке ӱжына. - Тау. Калык мут Шуко лудат - шуко палет. 62 II. Vocabulary Будапешт венгр Венгрий вучаш (-ем) гыч дек(е) еҥ изиш кас келшаш (-ем) кутыраш (-ем) кызыт лийза лияш (-ям) лудаш (-ам) марла марте ме мемнан мо мотор мыйын Budapest Hungarian Hungary to wait from, out to person a little, a bit, somewhat evening to please; to like; to agree /see IV.5./ to speak now (2Pl imperative лияш) to be; to become to read (in) Mari /see III.9./ till, until we our (genitive form of ме we, see III.5.) (interrogative particle, see IV.4.) beautiful my (genitive form of мый I ; see III.5.) палаш (-ем) to know Палыме лийза. lit. Be acquainted. Allow me to introduce. пеш сай таче те тендам тендан толза тудын тыланда ужар уке уна ӱжаш (-ам) ӱстел шергакан шуко ял very good, nice today you (plural) /see IV.1./ you (plural) (accusative of те you ; see III.5) your (plural) (genitive of те you ; see III.5.) come (in) (2Pl imperative толаш to come ) his/her (genitive of тудо he/she/it ; see III.5) you (plural) (dative of те you ; see III.5.) green no; is not guest to invite table dear much, many village III. Grammar 1. Conjugation - present tense, first and second persons plural: In the first and second persons plural - present tense the endings are as follows: Conjugation I Conjugation II 1Pl -ына -ена (-эна) 2Pl -ыда -еда (-эда) Example with тунемаш to learn (conjugation I) and илаш to live (conjugation II). 63 Conjugation I Conjugation II 1Pl тунемына илена 2Pl тунемыда иледа Note the spelling of conjugation II verbs with stems ending in a vowel: пуаш /puaš/ to give пуэна /puena/ we give, пуэда /pueda/ you give. Examples of full verbal conjugation in the present tense: Conjugation I Conjugation II толаш to come лудаш to read илаш to live вучаш to wait 1Sg толам лудам илем вучем 2Sg толат лудат илет вучет 3Sg толеш лудеш ила вуча 1Pl толына лудына илена вучена 2Pl толыда лудыда иледа вучеда 3Pl толыт лудыт илат вучат 2. улаш to be : The full paradigm of улаш in the present tense is as follows. Note that in sentences of the type A = B the form in the third person singular is usually omitted, see 3.III.2. (page 50). 1Sg улам Мый журналист улам. I am a journalist. 2Sg улат Тый журналист улат. You are a journalist. 3Sg [улеш] Тудо журналист. (S)he is a journalist. 1Pl улына Ме журналист улына. We are journalists. 2Pl улыда Те журналист улыда. Your are journalists. 3Pl улыт Нуно журналист улыт. They are journalists. 3. Possessive suffixes - first and second persons plural: The possessive suffix in the first person plural is на and in the second person plural -да. These endings are always stressed: олана our city, олада your city. For the difference in meaning between the endings of the second person singular and plural, see IV.1. a) The suffixes -на and -да appear directly after stressed vowels and consonants. 1Pl 2Pl уна ава чӱчӱ уна ава чӱчӱ унана авана чӱчӱна унада авада чӱчӱда our guest our mother our uncle your guest your mother your uncle 64 1Pl 2Pl ӱстел урем ийгот ӱстел урем ийгот ӱстелна уремна ийготна ӱстелда уремда ийготда our table our street our age your table your street your age b) If a word ends in an unstressed vowel, the vowel changes to the reduced -ы before the endings -на and -да are added. 1Pl 2Pl кече тумо кӱзӧ тема кече тумо кӱзӧ тема кечына тумына кӱзына темына кечыда тумыда кӱзыда темыда our day our oak tree our knife our topic your day your oak tree your knife your topic 4. Dative case: The dative case is used in answer to the question кӧлан to/for whom and молан to/for what. It is the marker for secondary and indirect objects. Елулан книгам пуэм. I will give the book (object 1) to Yelu (object 2). Тидым Сергелан ойлем. I will tell this (object 1) to Serge (object 2). The dative case ending is the invariable -лан. This ending can be either stressed or unstressed: Елу Елулан ~ Елулан. a) The suffix -лан appears directly after stressed vowels and consonants. Nominative Dative йоча child йочалан ола city олалан чӱчӱ uncle чӱчӱлан пӧрт house пӧртлан журналист journalist журналистлан ӱдыр daughter ӱдырлан b) If a word ends in an unstressed vowel, the vowel changes to the reduced ы before the suffix -лан is added. кече day; sun кечылан тумо oak tree тумылан кӱзӧ knife кӱзылан 65 5. Personal pronouns in the genitive, accusative, and dative: The six personal pronouns can also be used in the genitive, accusative, and dative cases. Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative 1Sg мый мыйын мыланем ~ мылам мыйым 2Sg тый тыйын тыланет ~ тылат тыйым 3Sg тудо тудын тудлан тудым 1Pl ме мемнан мыланна мемнам 2Pl те тендан тыланда тендам 3Pl нуно нунын нунылан нуным Dative: Note that there are two forms for personal pronouns in the first and second persons singular: мыланем ~ мылам and тыланет ~ тылат, the shorter forms being more typical in colloquial speech. (Also note the dative of the demonstrative pronoun тиде this : тидлан.) Genitive: The forms of the personal pronouns in the genitive can be used to show possession of nominals. In general, the nouns have possessive suffixes as well. One can thus say пӧртем or мыйын пӧртем my house. The two constructions are synonymous. 1Sg пӧртем мыйын пӧртем 2Sg пӧртет тыйын пӧртет 3Sg пӧртшӧ тудын пӧртшӧ 1Pl пӧртна мемнан пӧртна 2Pl пӧртда тендан пӧртда 3Pl пӧртышт нунын пӧртышт Note that personal pronouns in the genitive remain unchanged when the case of the nouns with which they are used changes: мыйын пӧртем my house /nominative/, мыйын пӧртыштем in my house /inessive/, мыйын пӧртышкем into my house /illative/. 6. Animacy - inanimacy: A category relevant for Mari nouns and personal pronouns is that of animacy and inanimacy. Animate nouns refer to people or animals and inaminate nouns refer to everything else. Inaminate nouns are used in all noun cases. Animate nouns, on the other hand, as a rule do not occur in local cases such as the inessive (-ште/-што/ -штӧ) or illative (-шке/-шко/-шкӧ). (To express the spatial concepts of these cases (in ~ into) in conjunction with animate nouns, various postpositions are used in place of the case suffixes.) The personal pronouns are used only in the nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive, but note that the third person pronouns тудо he/she/it and нуно they can refer both to animate and inanimate nouns. 7. Order of possessive and case suffixes: When used together in one word the order of the possessive and the case suffixes depends on the particular case suffix. If it is the genitive or accusative suffix, the order is: possessive suffix + case suffix see 2.III.5 (page 41). With the inessive and illative case suffixes the 66 order is the opposite: case suffix + possessive suffix. In the dative, both arrangements are possible. Nominative Genitive Accusative 1Sg пӧртем пӧртемын пӧртемым 2Sg пӧртет пӧртетын пӧртетым 3Sg пӧртшӧ пӧртшын пӧртшым 1Pl пӧртна пӧртнан пӧртнам 2Pl пӧртда пӧртдан пӧртдам 3Pl пӧртышт пӧртыштын пӧртыштым Inessive Illative 1Sg пӧртыштем пӧртышкем 2Sg пӧртыштет пӧртышкет 3Sg пӧртыштыжӧ пӧртышкыжӧ 1Pl пӧртыштына пӧртышкына 2Pl пӧртыштыда пӧртышкыда 3Pl пӧртыштышт пӧртышкышт 1Sg 2Sg 3Sg 1Pl 2Pl 3Pl Dative пӧртемлан ~ пӧртланем пӧртетлан ~ пӧртланет пӧртшылан ~ пӧртланже пӧртналан ~ пӧртланна пӧртдалан ~ пӧртланда пӧртыштлан ~ пӧртланышт Illative: Note that possessive suffixes can only be connected to the long form of the illative. Dative: Compare the form пӧртшылан with e.g., ачажлан, эргыжлан. Note here that the short form of the possessive suffix 3Sg -же/-жо/-жӧ is used after stems ending a vowel. 8. Plural suffixes: The plural suffix normally used with nouns is -влак. In writing it is always connected to the noun with a hyphen: пӧрт-влак houses, уна-влак guests, йылме-влак languages. The noun is not modified in any way when the plural suffix is added. An alternative plural suffix is -шамыч, which is also added in writing using a hyphen. Note that the plural suffixes are omitted when the plurality of the noun in question can be assumed from the context. Ме унам вучена. Ош пеледышым йӧратем. We are expecting guests. I like white flowers. 67 Predicative adjectives and nouns are not put into the plural. Пеледыш-влак мотор улыт. Нуно туныктышо улыт. The flowers are beautiful. They are teachers. Remember that after a numeral, the noun remains in the singular and the finite verb is conjugated in the singular as well: йоча вуча, кок йоча вуча, but йоча-влак вучат. Order of plural suffix + case suffix: When co-occurring in one word, the case suffix follows the plural suffix. Note the shift in stress to the plural suffix and the resultant effect on vowel harmony. Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Inessive Illative пӧрт-влак пӧрт-влакын пӧрт-влаклан пӧрт-влакым пӧрт-влакыште пӧрт-влакыш(ке) Order of plural suffix + possessive suffix: When co-occurring in one word, the plural suffix can either follow or precede the possessive suffix. 1Sg пӧрт-влакем пӧртем-влак 2Sg пӧрт-влакет пӧртет-влак 3Sg пӧрт-влакше пӧртшӧ-влак 1Pl пӧрт-влакна пӧртна-влак 2Pl пӧрт-влакда пӧртда-влак 3Pl пӧрт-влакышт пӧртышт-влак Order of plural suffix + possessive suffix + case suffix: When all these suffixes occur in one word, there are two suffix order possibilities: 1) The stem can be followed by the plural suffix to which the possessive suffix and the case suffix (genitive, accusative, dative) or the case suffix (inessive, illative) and the possessive suffix are attached. 2) The possessive suffix can be added to the stem, followed by the plural suffix and the case suffix. In the following example only the possessive suffix - first person singular is shown. Nominative пӧрт-влакем пӧртем-влак Genitive пӧрт-влакемын пӧртем-влакын Dative пӧрт-влакемлан пӧртем-влаклан Accusative пӧрт-влакемым пӧртем-влакым Inessive пӧрт-влакыштем пӧртем-влакыште Illative пӧрт-влакышкем пӧртем-влакыш(ке) Plural suffix -мыт: This sociative plural suffix is highly restricted in its use. It is attached to names and nouns denoting humans and is a heterogenous plural, meaning the noun and 68 his/her family/group/friends, etc.. The exact translation of a noun + -мыт will depend on the context. Thus, Сапаевмыт could mean the Sapayevs ~ Sapayev and his family, Петямыт Petya and his family, Petya and those with him, Petya and his friends, авамыт my mother and her group, my mother and those with her. Note that it is also possible to use the normal plural suffix(es) in such situations, i.e., Сапаев-влак, Сапаев-шамыч. The usage of the suffix -мыт implies a higher degree of familiarity with the people in question. 9. Adverbial suffix -ла: The stressed adverbial suffix -ла is added to words denoting nationalities to form adverbs pertaining to languages. These adverbs are typically used with certain verbs, such as кутыраш (-ем) to speak, возаш (-ем) to write, каласаш (-ем) to say, to speak, йодаш (-ам) to ask, мураш (-ем) to sing : марла кутыраш to speak (in) Mari, рушла возаш to write (in) Russian. Note the form марла in Mari марий. IV. Words and word usage 1. тый you ~ те you : Mari distinguishes between several types of you. The singular second person pronoun тый is informal and is used when addressing children, family members, and close friends, as well as animals or inaminate objects. The pronoun те, on the other hand, is used in the following cases: a) As the plural when addressing more than one child, family member, close friend, etc. b) As the formal or polite form when addressing all other people, whether one or more. The pronoun те is always used with the plural form of the verb, even when used to address only one person. The possessive suffixes -ет (second person singular) and -да (second person plural) are used accordingly. 2. Postpositions: The Mari language uses a large number of postpositions to complement the case system. Their usage is similar to that of prepositions in English, but they follow the noun rather than precede it. The noun is usually in the nominative case. (Exceptions to this rule will be noted.) гыч from Венгрий гыч from Hungary дек(е) to Сапаевмыт дек to the Sapayevs ден(е) with; and Елу ден Серге Yelu and Sergey марте till, until кас марте till evening Postpositions can also be used in conjunction with personal pronouns. When this occurs, there are different possibilities regarding the case of the pronoun (nominative or genitive) and the suffixing of the postposition (± possessive suffix). In the text of this lesson мемнан деке to us occurred with ме we in the genitive case and the postposition without a possessive suffix. To me ~ to you would however be мый декем and тый декет with мый I and тый you in the nominative and the postposition with possessive suffixes. The usage of postpositions with personal pronouns as well as the short and long forms of some postpositions will be discussed in a later lesson. 69 3. Cardinal and ordinal numbers from 50: Note that the cardinal numbers 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, and 1000 possess only one form. Cardinal number Short form Long form Ordinal number 50 витле витлымше 51 витле ик витле икте витле икымше 60 кудло кудлымшо 62 кудло кок кудло кокыт кудло кокымшо 70 шымле шымлымше 73 шымле кум шымле кумыт шымле кумшо 80 кандашле кандашлымше 84 кандашле ныл кандашле нылыт кандашле нылымше 90 индешле индешлымше 95 индешле вич индешле визыт индешле визымше 100 шӱдӧ шӱдымшӧ 106 шӱдӧ куд шӱдӧ кудыт шӱдӧ кудымшо 200 кокшӱдӧ кокшӱдымшӧ 207 кокшӱдӧ шым кокшӱдӧ шымыт кокшӱдӧ шымше 368 кумшӱдӧ кудло кандаш кумшӱдӧ кудло кумшӱдӧ кудло кандаше кандашымше 1000 тӱжем тӱжемше 5287 вич тӱжем кокшӱдӧ вич тӱжем кокшӱдӧ вич тӱжем кокшӱдӧ кандашле шым кандашле шымыт кандашле шымше 4. Interrogative particles: In addition to the interrogative pronoun мо what there is an interrogative particle мо, which is used at the end of sentences to mark them as being yes or no questions. Мемнан олана тыланда келша мо? Кинош кает мо? Do you like our city? Are you going to the cinema? The use of the particle мо in yes or no questions is not compulsory. When it is not used, the fact that the sentence is a question is indicated by means of intonation. Track 20 / 4_2.mp3 70 Тудо туныктышо мо? Тудо туныктышо? Тудо туныктышо. Тыйын пӧртет уло мо? Тыйын пӧртет уло? Мыйын пӧртем уло. Ола тылат келша мо? Ола тылат келша? Ола мылам келша. Is (s)he a teacher? Is (s)he a teacher? (S)he is a teacher. Do you have a house? Do you have a house? I have a house. Do you like the city? Do you like the city? I like the city. 5. келшаш (-ем) to like : This verb has several meanings: to like; to please; to agree. In the sense of to like it is primarily used in the third person (singular and plural). Its grammatical usage with a noun or pronoun in the dative case corresponds not to the English verb to like, but to the phrase to please/be pleasing to someone. Thus: Do you like our city? ( Is our city pleasing to you?) Мемнан олана тыланда келша мо? When used in the meaning of to agree, this verb governs the postposition дене with. Тиде ола мыланем келша. Мый тидын дене келшем. I like this city. I agree with this. 6. Asking someone s age: In addition to the structure with ияш explained in 1.IV.3. (page 33) one can also use a structure with the dative and the word ий year. Тый мыняр ияш улат? Мый 25 ияш улам. Тыланет (тылат) мыняр ий? Мыланем (мылам) 25 ий. How old are you? I am 25 years old. 7. Greetings: Here are some of the most common greetings used in Mari. Note t
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