تبیین چگونگی تربیت اخلاقی در دوره کودکی و عوامل مؤثر بر آن؛ رهیافتی تأملی جهت سامان¬دهی برنامه¬های تربیتی

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تربیت اخلاقی از مهم¬ترین ساحت¬های تربیتی است که به مفهوم ایجاد شناخت و برانگیختن احساس، جهت تضعیف و اجتناب از صفات منفی (رذائل) و مراقبت و پرورش هماهنگ صفات مثبت (فضائل) در راستای ملکه شدن در عمق وجودی انسان می¬باشد. روشن شدن چگونگی تربیت اخلاقی در دوره کودکی و عوامل مؤثر بر آن می¬تواند به عنوان رهیافتی تأملی نقش مهمی در سامان¬دهی برنامه¬های تربیتی داشته باشد. از این رو در این مقاله سعی می¬گردد تا با استفاده از روش پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی به این مهم پرداخته شود. به منظور گردآوری داده¬های لازم جهت نیل به اهداف پژوهش، منابع موجود و مرتبط با موضوع پژوهش با استفاده از فرم¬های فیش برداری از منابع، جمع¬آوری شده و با شیوه¬های کیفی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته¬اند. یافته¬های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که تربیت اخلاقی در دوره کودکی ضمن دارا بودن هدف، بهره¬گیری از شیوه¬های اثربخش و در نظر گفتن موانع و مشکلات باید در راستای سه بُعد شناختی، عاطفی و عملکردی طراحی و اجرا گردد. البته توجه به عوامل وراثتی و محیطی (خانواده، مدرسه، همسالان، رسانه¬های مجازی و غیرمجازی، شرایط جغرافیایی) از ضروریات این نظام تربیتی است.

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  • 1. 69Ç57,1396n±½o´{,237²nBª{,©z{°Sv¼M¤BwÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ¬CoMoYÆ«¥«A±°»Ÿj±Ÿ²n°jnj»›ÀiAS¼MoU»¢¯±¢a­¼¼LU »T¼MoUºBµ³«B¯oM»µj¬B«BwS´]»¦«FU»T—B¼µn »ÄBL‡BL‡³«À²B¢z¯Aj»wnj³«B¯oMRBŽ§B†«ºoTŸjº±z¯Aj.»–¯­ve?hnajafih@yahoo.com 1»®¼ªi ¨B«A »zµ°sQ ° »{p±«C ·vwÆ« »T¼MoU ¨±¦• tB®{nBŸ .ºkªd«­vekªd«mh.mohammadi1368@gmail.com 95.11.2:S—B½nj96.3.29:xo½mQ ²k¼ža S´],tBveA­Th¼¢¯AoM°SiB®{jB½A¨±´–«³M³ŸSwA»T¼MoUºBµSeBw­½oU©´«pA»›ÀiAS¼MoU ¬Bv¯Aºj±]°™ªnj¬k{³ž¦«ºBTwAnnj,¥½B‚—¡®µBªµxn°oQ°SL›Ao«°¥½AlnpAJB®T]A°•¼Ž‚U ,»¦«FU»T—B¼µn¬A±®³Mk¯A±U»«¬CoMoYÆ«¥«A±°»Ÿj±Ÿ¶n°jnj»›ÀiAS¼MoU»¢¯±¢a¬k{­{°n/k{BM»« »¦¼¦dUÇ»–¼±Uyµ°sQx°nBM³§Bš«­½A,°n­½ApA/k{BM³T{Aj»T¼MoUºBµ³«B¯oM»µj¬B«Bwnj»ª´«yš¯ ,”kµ¬j±MAnAj­ªƒ»Ÿj±Ÿ¶n°jnj»›ÀiAS¼MoU³ŸSwA¬Co¢¯B¼Myµ°sQºBµ³T—B½/SwA³T—B½­½°kU °»–‡B,»TiB®{kŽM³wºBTwAnnjk½BM,RÀžz«°¯A±«­T—o£oŠ¯nj°yhMoYAºBµ²±¼{pAºo¼£²o´M ºBµ³¯Bwn,¬¿Bvªµ,³wnk«,²jA±¯Bi)»†¼d«°»TYAn°¥«A±³M³]±U³TL§A/jjo£Ao]A°»eAo‡ºjož¦ª /SwA»T¼MoU¨BŠ¯­½ARB½n°oƒpA(»½B¼—Ao’]…½Ao{,ºpB«o¼“°ºpB« /»T¼MoUºBµ³«B¯oM»µj¬B«Bw,»›ÀiAS¼MoUoMoYÆ«¥«A±,»›ÀiAS¼MoU»¢¯±¢a,»Ÿj±Ÿ²n°j:Bµ²rA°k¼¦Ÿ Marifat _____________________________________________________________Vol.26,No6,Shahrivar1396
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  • 8. Ë641396n±½o´{Ç237²nBª{Ç©z{°Sv¼M¤Bw ³ž¦ÇM,Sv¼¯njB«°nkQº±wpAB´®UBµ»£s½°¤BšT¯AÇ /j±{»«¥«B{q¼¯An³T{m£ºBµ¥v¯ ­½oªU°ºo¼£jB½³MpB¼¯»YnAºBµ»£s½°p°oM°n±´‹Ç /k¯A»MBvTŸAo¼“Bµ»£s½°­½A°k¯nAk¯ nj,jnAjj±Ç]°³–†¯jBšŽÇ¯A¨B¢®µ³Ÿ»ž¼T¯r¥Ç«A±Ç·ªµÇ /(182|,1Z,1394,¬B£k®v½±¯pA»Žª])k¯A©¼´wSYAn°­¼¼ŽU »›ÀÇiAS¼MoÇUnjoYÆÇ«°©´Ç«¥«A±pA»ž½SYAn° nj,¬AnjB«°¬AnkQ»›ÀiAºBµºkMB½B½Bw/SwA¬BŸj±Ÿ ¬CVnA°¬Ak¯poǗ°k®Ÿ»Ç«jBǽAAn»½Bµ³®¼Ç«p¬Ak¯poÇǗ »zhM,¤Beoµ³M;k¯±{»«k®vQB¯B½²k½k®vQºBµ»£s½° S¼MoÇUnBǟpBǓC,nmÇ¢µn­Ç½ApA/SwA»Y°n±Ç«˜ÀiApA ­Ç½A³ÇM;SwAZA°jpApAy¼Q»Te°k§±UpAy¼Q,»›ÀiA ,kwn»«VnA³M¬Ak¯po—³M»›ÀiAºBµ»£s½°¬±a³ŸB®Ž« ¬B]·d–pAk®vQB¯ºBµ»£s½°,ZA°jpApAy¼QBµ¤Bwk½BM ºBµ»£s½°VnA°B´®U¬Ak¯po—BUj±{²j°jp²k®½CnjB«°nkQ j±]°»¯A°Ao—W½jBeA,³®¼«p­½Anj/k®{BMnjB«°nkQJ±i k¯po—o¢®M>:k®½B«o—»«9¨oŸAoL«B¼Q³ž®½A³¦ª]pA;jnAj »›BÇMAnj±Çio¼ÇYFU¬±Çi³ÇŸ»µj»Ç«nAo›BŸnjAnj±i RnBLǏ³ÇM/(564b,266|,1385,²k®½BÇQ)<jnAm£»« oÇYAk¯poǗnj»Ç£jA±¯BÇi·Çz½n° n°jAsǯ°¥v¯,o¢½j ³ÇMSeAodzÇM,³MBz«W½jBeA°W½ke­½Anj/jnAm£»« °SwA²k{o¼LŽU<˜oߏ>·ª¦Ÿ³M¬CpA°²nB{ASYAn°¬±¯B› ¥—BǓSYAn°¬±¯BǛpA³ÇŸkǯA²j±ªÇ¯xnB–Çw­¼®aoL«B¼Q °SYAn°»ÇŸBÇQ¥¼§j»›ÀiAºB½Bw³ŸºA³¯±£³M,k¼{BL¯ ­Ç½k§A°³ÇŸSwA»´½kÇM°SwA»Ç£jA±¯BÇi·z½nS¦¼‚— °³½B«oÇQ»Ç¯Ak¯po—,nBŸAk—°k®ªU°Bhw°ŒB{°nAk®½j ,SYAn°yšÇ¯S¼ªÇµAKLÇw³ÇM/k¯n°C»«nBM³MS¦¼‚—BM °K¼¯°¥¼AºBµ²jA±¯BiBM¬B¯A±]³Ÿk®Ÿ»«k¼ŸFU¨ÀwA ³M1»®¼ªi¨B«A/k®®ŸZA°jpA˜ÀiABM°nAk®½j»¯AovªµBM jBšŽÇ¯ApAy¼ÇQS¼MoU¥eAo«°k§±UpAy¼QS¼MoU¥eAo« ³Ÿk®¯Aj»«¨ÀwAºBµ»£s½°pAAnB´®½A°k¯A²jAj³]±U³–†¯ ¨BǽA,¥ªe¬An°j,³–†¯jBšŽ¯A,ovªµJBhT¯AºAoMAn»MAjC ·LUo«pAAn¬Bv¯Ak¯A±U»«¨ÀwA;SwA²joŸ¬B¼M///°¬jAjo¼{ k®ÇŸS¼MoÇUS¼¯BÇe°n˜±Ç—BU,S¼¯Be°n·LUo«BUSŽ¼L‡ „oÇ{,­Ç½AoMB®ÇM/(3|,8Z,1379,»®¼ªÇiº±w±Ç«) njBÇ«°nkÇQ³ŸSwA¬C»›ÀiAS¼MoU°»£k¯pBwSvh¯ ³T{AjAn¨p¿»¢Tv½B{,œj±ŸS¼MoUS¼§±Ãv«xo½mQºAoM R¿BenjSYAn°/k®{BMºA³TwnA°ºBµ¬Bv¯A»›ÀiAoŠ¯pA° ,°n­Ç½ApA;SwAoYÆÇ«»£kǯppAºA³¦Çeo«oµnjjAo—A»e°n /jnAjjo—»ThM¬±¢¯B½ºk®«²o´MnjºA²s½°yš¯SYAn°¥«B o¼ÇYFUq¼Ç¯…¼dÇ«pAœj±ÇŸ°Sv¼Ç¯¥«BǏB´®USYAn°³TL§A /SwAoYÆ«¬Bv¯AS¼MoU°k{nnj…¼d«°jo¼£»« j±{»«³T–£»]nBi¥«A±·ªµ³M,…¼d«:»†¼d«¥«A±(2 ºA³–†¯¥ž{³M¬Bv¯A³ŸºA³Šd§¬CpA»®Ž½,k{npB“CpA³Ÿ q¼¯­¼®],­½AoMB®M/k¯nAm£»«oYA°AoM,jo¼£»«nAo›©ennj kÇ{n¬BÇv¯A³Çaoǵ°jo¼£»Ç«oÇMnjAn¬C³ŸjnAj»†¼d« |,1386,»L]n)kMB½»«xoTv£°A…¼d«²o½Aj,k®Ÿ»« ºA²s½°ºB®Ž«k{nnjoYÆ«¥«B·§q®«³M…¼d«/(114Ç113 joǗj±]°pAZ
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