Traditional ecological knowledge of traditional grassland management in East-Central Europe. Molnár, Zsolt MTA Centre for Ecological Research - PDF

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Traditional ecological knowledge of traditional grassland management in East-Central Europe Molnár, Zsolt MTA Centre for Ecological Research ANIMAL+CHANGE Climate change is a serious problem There are

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Traditional ecological knowledge of traditional grassland management in East-Central Europe Molnár, Zsolt MTA Centre for Ecological Research ANIMAL+CHANGE Climate change is a serious problem There are also other serious problems, e.g.: The world view and mentality of the market economy Overuse of resources, over-intensification of agriculture etc. Homogenization of the World driven by Western ideologies and by Western science (decrease in biological and cultural diversity) Our knowledge is often not enough to mitigate and adapt. There is a need to diversify knowledge sources used to solve problems. In ecology/grassland management we need to include non-science sources, like local, practical, traditional knowledge of people working in less intensive systems. Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Platform goal Strengthen the science-policy interface for biodiversity and ecosystem services for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, long-term human well-being and sustainable development. Create a dialoge between knowledge systems, incuding indigenous and local knowledge. Synergy of knowledge systems: science + local/traditional knowledge + practical knowledge + etc. Tengö M. et al. (2014): Connecting diverse knowledge systems for enhanced ecosystem governance: the multiple evidence base approach. Ambio 43: Informants and teachers POSSIBLE TOPICS Local perception of climate change and its effects Local knowledge of the ecology of the landscape Local perception of landscape change Local techniques of grazing and hay making Local understanding of EU agricultural policy and regulations Local knowledge of soils and soil dynamics Local understanding of humus dynamics, effects of manuring/fertilization etc. Data and knowledge gathering techniques Data and knowledge gathering techniques The four levels of traditional ecological knowledge species, habitats land use and its effect social institutions world view Berkes 1999 (slightly modified) Our study sites Gömör Bereg Balatonfelvidék Tisza-mente Hortobágy Szilágyság Moldva Őrség Somogy Kiskunság Kalotaszeg Gyimes Kászon Kopácsi-rét Eurasian forest steppes: Hungary is transitional between East and West hectares of high-nature value grasslands in Hungary: need for sustainable, modern but extensive grazing systems Gyimes, Romania Hortobágy, Hungary Babai D., Molnár Á., Molnár Zs. (2014): Traditional ecological knowledge and traditional management in Gyimes. MTA BTK, MTA ÖK, Budapest-Vácrátót. Molnár Zs. (2012): Traditional ecological knowledge of herders of the flora and vegetation of the Hortobágy. Hortobágy Term.véd.Közalap., Debr. Time (4 years) Short grass salt steppe satellite image Fodder availability High spatial heterogeneity Local knowledge of the ecology of the landscape telek, állás nádas, gyíkínyes, zsombikos, fertőlapos, perjés, tocsogó ürmös bíbicbaszta főd marikkal rakott főd tippanos szíkporong szíkfok szíksavas szűz főd szíkpadka vakszík Folk habitats juhászpadka Molnár Zs. (2012): Classification of pasture habitats by Hungarian herders in a steppe landscape (Hungary). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8: 28. ca. 29 grass/sedge-like taxa are distinguished Stipa pennata agg. Stipa capillata árvalányhaj Sclerochloa tippan tippan Poa kík/veres tippan angustifolia Festuca pseudovina selyemfű, bundaszőr, meszelőtippan libatippan F. rupicola Poa bulbosa szurkos tippan, mancsifű (szíki tippan) Puccinellia Agropyron pectiniforme gyíkíny T. angustifolia Lolium perenne Koeleria Phalaris mogyorógy. liliomgy. Typha laxmannii T. latifolia rafiagy. Setaria pumila komócsin muhar Pholiurus S. viridis Calamagrostis nád Phragmites ca. 29 grass/sedge-like taxa fehérlevelű sás cigánybúza, mancsa muhar talpas muhar Echinochloa crus-galli Glyceria maxima Glyceria fluitans Hordeum murinum Hordeum geniculatum sás, háromélű sás kutyaherélő sás C. acutiformis csattogó Beckmannia Bromus Ventenata hordeaceus, dubia tectorum, sterilis, commutatus Bolboschoenus vadzab káka Schoenoplectus (fekete) káka Eleocharis csetkáka C. stenophylla C. praecox komócsin komócsin Phalaris kárászperje Alopecurus geniculatus vadzab perje Bromus inermis perje Alopecurus pratensis Calamagrostis csenkesz, vetett fű Arrhenatherum Juncus conglomeratus fenyer tarack Elymus repens tarack Phleum csenkesz Dactylis Festuca pratensis, arundinacea sás, fenyer, csádé, káka fenyer Agrostis tarack Cynodon dactylon Local perception of landscape change the steppe lived, today it is silent (less people, less birds) in many places it became wild there is not enough livestock, the grass is dirty (= to much litter) bushes and new species spread, wetlands are full of reed, no more open water pastures are not properly managed Local techniques of grassland management Look, they are spread out so nicely! The sheep does not eat with his legs! legeltet = force/motivate to graze Molnár Zs. (2014): Perception and management of spatio-temporal pasture heterogeneity by Hungarian herders. Rangeland Ecology and Management 67: Local techniques of grassland management I does matter who leans on the stick! Molnár Zs. (2014): Perception and management of spatio-temporal pasture heterogeneity by Hungarian herders. Rangeland Ecology and Management 67: Local techniques of grassland management You have to go among them. I do not have time to read a newspaper! During a day a planned sequence of pasture types is visited (with clover, green-fresh grass, older-dry grass, tree shoots etc.). Bells and biodiversity? Type of management Pre-cooperatives ( ) Cooperatives ( ) Postcooperatives ( ) Traditional ways of pasture improvements grazing rotation, portioning grazing from well to well manuring by the translocation of resting places manuring burning removal of spiny plants draining by small ditches artificial fertilisation soil improvement by chemicals Harrowing, discing sowing of grasslands irrigation of grasslands electric or fixed fences draining by ditch networks Modern ways of pasture improvements Molnár Zs. (2014): Perception and management of spatio-temporal pasture heterogeneity by Hungarian herders. Rangeland Ecology and Management 67: Directing succession on mountain hay meadows Babai D., Molnár Zs. (2014): Small-scale traditional management of highly species-rich grasslands in the Carpathians. Agriculture, Ecology and Environment 182: HAYSEEDS Unconscientious management of biodiversity Murha viable seeds / 1 liter hayseed Unconscientious management of biodiversity Optimize seed and biomass production (different parcels are mown first/last from season to season) - EU regulations do not permit this!!!! Babai D., Molnár Zs. (2014): Small-scale traditional management of highly species-rich grasslands in the Carpathians. Agriculture, Ecology and Environment 182: PROPOSAL for a new EU agricultural regulation package for mountain hay meadows e.g. for Maramures and Gyimes based on local traditional management Allowed, compulsory - Mowing only by small machines or by hand - Start mowing after 15th July - Mow only once a year - Scattering of hayseeds and Onobrychis is allowed - Grass below solitary trees must be mown - Translocation of ant hills to boundaries is allowed - Grazing cattle and horse on second growth is allowed Logical, but never introduced Not allowed - Overseeding, herbicide application, manuring, irrigation - To change meadows into pastures, sheep grazing - To mow twice a year - To fell trees between cm in diameter Máté A., Molnár Zs., Molnár Á., Babai D. (2014): Agrár-környezetgazdálkodási célprogram a fajgazdag, extenzíven kezelt hegyi kaszálók védelméért. Kézirat. MESSAGES There are different understandings of the environment (scientific and local/traditional/practical etc.) Rich traditional ecological knowledge on grassland management in East-Central Europe Special methodology and methods are needed to study it Useful ideas for strategic, non-conventional planning of extensive sustainable grazing systems East-Central Europe should learn a lot from its own traditional past to conserve biocultural diversity Many young people relearn folk traditions incl. farming, let s help them to modernize traditions into the 21th century KEY MESSAGE: Extensive grazing and mowing are optimal ways to utilize and maintain high-nature value grasslands
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