The Motor Guide Nimetön-1 1 3/16/2005, 12:18 PM - PDF

The Motor Guide Motors are made by people The Motor Guide The Motor Guide- basic technical information about low voltage standard motors LV Motors We reserve the right to change the design, technical

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The Motor Guide Motors are made by people The Motor Guide The Motor Guide- basic technical information about low voltage standard motors LV Motors We reserve the right to change the design, technical specification and dimensions, without prior notice. Partial reprints or reproductions are permitted subject to full acknowledgement. ISBN Second edition 2005 iv Contents 1. ABB Profile 1.1 The ABB Group ABB Motors Product range Quality, certificates Information technology support Central stock system Energy saving and the environment 2.1 General Energy efficient motors Motors for EU motor effiency levels Motors according to EPAct requirements Benefits of high effiency motors Energy saving, Life Cycle Assesment (LCA) ABB s Environmental Management Program ISO Standards 3.1 General Introduction Direction of rotation Cooling Degrees of protection: IP code/ik code Standard voltage ranges 40 - Code letters for voltage bands 40 - Motors for other voltages Tolerances Mounting arrangements 43 - International standards, IM mounting 43 - Examples of common mounting arrangements Dimensions and power standards Electrical design 4.1 Insulation Ambient temperatures and high altitudes 50 - Permitted output in high ambient temperatures or at high altitudes Starting motors 50 - D.O.L 50 - Y/D-starting Soft starters Starting time 53 v Contents - Permitted starting time 53 - Permitted frequency of starting and reversing Starting characteristics Examples of starting performance Duty types 60 - Duty types from S1 to S Uprating Efficiency Power factor Phase compensation Power factor values Connection diagrams Mechanical design 5.1 Frame constructions Terminal boxes 74 - Co-ordination of terminal boxes and cable entries Bearings 77 - Bearing life 77 - Bearing size 77 - Bearing design for aluminum motors 78 - Bearing design for steel and cast iron motors 78 - Vibration test photo Balancing Surface treatment Noise 6.1 Noise reduction Noise components Fan Magnetic noise Airborne and structure borne noise Airborne noise Structure borne noise Low noise motors Sound pressure level and sound power level Weighting filters Octave bands 88 - Octave band analysis Converter duty Additional sound sources 91 vi Contents Perception of difference in sound level Sound pressure levels Installation and maintenance 7.1 Delivery acceptance Insulation resistance check Torque on terminals Usage 96 - Operating conditions 96 - Safety 96 - Accident prevention Handling 97 - Storage 97 - Transportation 97 - Machine weights Foundations Foundation studs Coupling alignment Mounting pulleys and coupling halves Slide rails Mounting bearings Lubrication Motors with permanently greased bearings Motors fitted with grease nipples Fuse rating guide The SI system 8.1 Quantities and units Example Conversion factors Selecting a motor 9.1 Motor type Type of enclosure Loading (kw) Speed Motor speeds table Mounting Power supply Operating environment Ordering check list Check lists 117 vii Contents 10. Variable Speed Drives 10.1 General Converters Direct converters Inderect converters Pulse Width Modulation Dimensioning the drive Motor selection Motor design Converter selection Loadability (torque) More effective cooling Filtering Special rotor design Insulation level Earthing High speed operation Maximum torque Bearing construction Lubrication Fan noise Balancing Critical speeds Shaft seals Low speed operation Lubrication Cooling capacity Electromagnetic noise 131 viii ABB Profile 1 1. ABB Profile 1.1. The ABB Group ABB: A world leader in electrical engineering ABB ( is a leader in power and automation technologies that enable utility and industry customers to improve performance while lowering environmental impacts. The ABB Group of companies operates in around 100 countries and employs around 103,000 people. ABB has streamlined its divisional structure to focus on two businesses: Power Technologies and Automation Technologies. ABB Power Technologies serves electric, gas and water utilities as well as industrial and commercial customers, with a broad range of products, systems and services for power transmission, distribution and automation. ABB Automation Technologies blends a robust product and service portfolio with end-user expertise and global presence to deliver solutions for control, motion, protection, and plant integration across the full range of process and utility industries. 11 1. ABB Profile 1.1. The ABB Group 12 1. ABB Profile 1.2 ABB Low Voltage Motors ABB has been manufacturing motors for over 100 years. Our products are designed to be reliable, efficient and cost effective, and we can supply motors for practically any application. A full range of services is available through our worldwide service organization, with the latest ebusiness systems providing round-the-clock access, easy ordering and fast delivery. ABB s General purpose motors are readily available from central stock locations and distributors throughout the world. While designed for standard and straightforward uses, the motors can be modified to meet most specifications. Built to the highest manufacturing standards, the General purpose motors use the best materials sourced from around the world. This brings a quality and reliability that can see motors operating for over 30 years. Competitively priced, the motors meet EFF2 energy efficiency classification, with EFF1 as option. ABB s Process performance motor is engineered to meet the most demanding applications found in industries including pulp and paper, water treatment, food and bewerage, metals and building materials. Such is the high design specification of the motor, when used in conjunction with applications in these industries, ABB is able to provide a 3-year warranty. Built on the highest manufacturing standards, the process performance motors used the best materials sourced around the world. This brings a quality and reliability than can see motors operating for over 30 years. Competitively priced, the motors meet EFF1 energy efficiency classification. 13 14 Process performance motors General purpose motors Brake motors Aluminum motors Aluminum motors Cast iron motors Cast iron motors Steel motors Open drip proof motors Low Voltage Motors for All Applications 1. ABB Profile 1.3 Product range Single-phase motors Integral motors Motors for hazardous areas Flameproof motors Increased safety motors (al , cast iron ) Non-sparking motors (al , cast iron ) DIP motors (al , cast iron ) 1. ABB Profile 1.3 Product range 15 Marine motors Aluminum motors Cast iron motors Steel motors Open drip proof motors 1. ABB Profile 1.3 Product range ABB Motors total product offer ABB offers several comprehensive ranges of AC motors and generators. We manufacture syncronous motors for even the ost demanding applications, and full range of low and high voltage induction motors. Our in-depth knowledge of vitually every type of industrial processing ensures we always specity the best for your needs. Low voltage motors and generators General purpose motors for standard applications Aluminum motors Steel motors Cast iron motors Open drip proof motors Global motors Brake motors Single phase motors Integral motors Process performance motors for more demanding applications Aluminum motors Cast iron motors Motors for high ambient temperatures NEMA motors Motors for hazardous areas Flameproof motors Increased safety motors Non-sparking motors Dust ignition proof motors Marine motors Aluminum motors Steel motors Cast iron motors Open drip proof motors Other applications Permanent magnet motors High speed motors Wind turbine generators Smoke venting motors Water cooled motors Motors for roller table drives High voltage and synchronous motors and generators High voltage cast iron motors Induction modular motors Slip ring motors Motors for hazardous areas Servomotors Synchronous motors and generators DC motors and generators 16 1. ABB Profile 1.4 Quality, certificates ABB motors factories are certified according to ISO 9001 quality standard and ISO environmental standard. All ABB motors supplied are inspected and tested to ensure they are free from defects and have the desired design and performance characteristics. Routine testing This inspection is carried out on every motor. It involves checking that the motor possesses the necessary electrical strength and that its electrical and mechanical performance is satisfactory. Type inspection Type inspection is performed for one or more motors, to demonstrate that the characteristics and functions of the design are in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer. Type inspection covers the inspection and testing of: electrical and mechanical operation electrical and mechanical strength temperature rise and efficiency overload capacity other special characteristics of the motor 17 1. ABB Profile 1.4 Quality, certificates Random inspection Subject to agreement at the time of ordering, purchasers may select a certain number of motors from a specific order for more detailed inspection and testing, similar in content to type inspection. The remaining motors undergo routine testing. Special motor versions Motors to be used onboard merchant vessels or in potentially explosive areas must undergo additional inspection and testing as laid down in the requirements of the relevant classification society or in applicable national or international standards. Test reports Type test reports providing typical performance values for purchased motors, together with a copy of the inspection and testing report will be issued to customers on request. 18 1. ABB Profile 1.5 Information technology support A wide selection of technical documentation, such as data sheets, dimension drawings and certificates from various authorities worldwide can be downloaded from the web site at Our easy-to-use motor selection tool, Online Motor Data Search enables motor selection, with motor-specific documentation, online. Also our dimensioning, MotSize, tool can be downloaded from our web-site. To view and download information, simply follow easy-to-use navigation down to the product requested. The following can be accessed from web: Accessories - detailed information on available motor options CAD outline drawings which can be copied into practically any AutoCad system Certificates of Approval - a selection of actual certificates from various authorities worldwide Declarations of Conformity - including voltage directives, CE markings etc. Manuals - available in several languages Maintenance - specific information, often not included in catalogues, such as special rules on how to store motors for long periods 19 1. ABB Profile 1.5 Information technology support Motor dimension drawings - over 5000 motor dimension drawings, including frame size- and frame length-specific drawings for both low and high voltage standard and special motors Spare parts. ABB web site is regularly updated and continuously developed. CD-ROM Also available on CD-ROM are: Complete motor catalogs CAD outline drawings Dimension drawings Motor Selection Program 20 1. ABB Profile 1.6 Logistics System ABB established logistics system for low voltage motors in Today several other ABB products, for example low voltage drives utilizes the same concept. The concept of a logistics system with central stock locations is unique in the electric motors market. The rapid and efficient service it provides has since become a powerful marketing and sales argument for ABB. ABB s sales force is backed by the most sophisticated delivery system in the business. 300,000 motors and drives in 2,000 variations are available at the three Central Stock locations of the new European distribution network, in Germany, Sweden and Spain, which together have Europe covered. The Central Stock in Singapore handles South East Asia while Shanghai takes care of China and New Berlin, Wisconsin, of North America. In addition, many standard products are held by local distributors. ABB s logistics system, with a common order management system (OMS), is the biggest commitment to motor and drives logistics by any manufacturer. It ensures the quick and correct delivery of any product, produced by any of ABB s motor or drive factories. The OMS also eliminates manual input of data at the central stock locations and guarantees a smooth processing of data. Online access can be arranged via an EDI connection, directly to ABB OMS, or via Business Online (BOL), our web based customer interface to the OMS. This includes access to stock status and availability information. To get access to BOL, please contact your nearest sales office. If you have special requirements, numerous factory supported design modifications are available within ABB s stocked standard motor ranges. Each site has a workshop for carrying out modifications. Some 70,000 modification variants are available. These include options such as different shafts, bearings, insulation, terminal boxes, end shields and even colours, as well as custom designs built to order. Modifications such as these can be carried out within 24 hours. 21 Energy saving and the environment 2 2. Energy saving and the environment 2.1 General At the World Summit held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, 55 nations of the world agreed to implement measures to reduce emissions to stabilise the global environment. The 38 industrialised nations agreed to reduce their 1990 level greenhouse emissions by an average of 5% between 2008 and Further, the European Union made a commitment to reduce its emissions by 8% Effiency Classes - EU/CEMEP agreement in Oct 98 4-pole Eff1 Eff2 Eff3 1,1 1,5 2, ,5 7, , Output kw Borderline Eff1/Eff2 Borderline Eff2/Eff3 In October 1998, the European Union and CEMEP (The European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics) agreed to introduce three efficiency classes for electric motors. This agreement forms part of the European Commission s aims to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO 2 emissions, and has already resulted in a considerable decrease of EFF3 motors, (the lowest efficiency class) on the market. In addition, an emission trade will be started within EU in The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity, primarily consumed by households and industry, is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Industry will, therefore, have a major part to play in reducing harmful emissions. For instance by increasing the efficiency of their production processes, and installing energy efficient devices, industrial processes will consume less electricity. Which, in turn, will reduce the amount of electricity which must be generated to meet demand. 25 2. Energy saving and the environment 2.2 Energy Efficient Motors Motors account for around 65 per cent of the electric energy consumed in industrial applications. Energy saving is dependent on the kw rating of the motor, the loading and the hours run. As such, higher efficiency motors can play a significant part in reducing CO 2 emissions. ABB motors are designed to meet changing world attitudes towards energy efficiency and motor performance. The all round operational performance of these motors goes a long way towards fulfilling the commitments of world governments to the Kyoto Summit. Industries can also help by recycling raw materials such as plastic and aluminum. This will save the electricity needed to produce these materials from their raw state (oil and aluminum or respectively) Motors for EU motor efficiency levels ABB is one of only a handful of leading motor manufacturers in Europe, to have a motor range to meet or exceed the minimum efficiencies stated in the highest level of the EU agreement for LV motors. These efficiency levels apply to 2- and 4-pole, three phase squirrel cage induction motors, rated for 400 V, 50 Hz, with S1 duty class and with the output kw, which account for the largest volume on the market Motors according to EPAct requirements The recently amended American Energy Policy and Conservation Act, generally referred to as EPAct, requires electric motors in the kw (1-200 hp) range, manufactured in or imported to the United States or Canada, to meet the efficiency levels demanded by law. ABB s wide product range includes motors that fulfil these requirements Global Motors Global motors are motors that can be specified and used anywhere, multi-labelled to meet: UR, EPAct, CE, EFF1, CSA, EEF. Range covers aluminum motors, 2- and 4-pole, IEC size 63 to 2. Energy saving and the environment Benefits of high efficiency motors Reducing energy costs is one way companies can cut their overheads to remain competitive. Significant savings can be made by installing an energy efficient motor. This is particularly the case when considering either new installations or equipment packages, replacing oversized and underloaded motors, making major modifications to facilities or processes, or instead of repairing or rewinding a failed motor. High efficiency motors offer savings through reduced energy costs, less downtime and a lower stock inventory. Even small rises in efficiency will make a substantial saving in the overall cost of a motor, taking into account both the operating and capital cost. For example, in the UK, an 11 kw motor costs, typically, under GBP 500 to buy, yet over GBP 50,000 to run over a 10 year operating life. The purchase price is therefore around 1 per cent of the motor s total life cycle cost. The table below compares the capital cost of various motor sizes with their running costs by showing approximately how long it takes to consume their own capital cost in energy cost. Capital cost versus running cost (GBP) Rating 5.5 kw 18.5 kw 90 kw 250 kw Approx. cap cost ,700 10,500 Typical efficiency 85 % 90 % 92 % 94 % Input kw Daily running cost Days to consume capital cost Assuming continuous duty at a tariff of GBP 0.05/kWh All ABB motors are energy efficient as standard, available off the shelf in all standard frame sizes. There is also a range of High Effiency Motors available. They are suitable for all applications, including hazardous areas, and variable speed drive. 27 2. Energy saving and the environment Benefits of high efficiency motors An energy efficient motor produces the same output power (torque) but uses less electrical input power (kw) than a standard efficiency motor. This higher efficiency is achieved by using higher quality and thinner laminations in the stator to reduce core loss, more copper in the slots to reduce I 2 R loss. Energy efficient motors also have reduced fan and stray losses. There are three main motor efficiency testing standards, IEC (EU), IEEE (USA), and JEC 37 (Japan). The main difference is that IEEE 112 measures the total losses by a direct method, thus giving the lowest values. IEC is an indirect method which assumes the additional losses to be 0.5 per cent, which is lower than real losses for small motors. JEC 37 is also an indirect method which assumes the additional losses to be zero, thus giving the highest values. 28 2. Energy saving and the environment Energy saving, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Life Cycle Assessment can show designers how to obtain environmental benefits in their products. The table below compares two standard 11 kw electric motors of different design. Motor A is manufactured by ABB Motors, and Motor X by a competitor. The ABB motor requires more copper and iron to manufacture than motor B, but this makes it more efficient in operation. This means that it uses less electricity than motor X over its lifetime. Operating 8,000 hours per year for 15 years, the more efficient ABB motor will use 140,681 kwh, and the less efficient motor X, 177,978 kwh. With an efficiency of 91.1 per cent, an ABB motor will lose 8.9 per cent of the 140,681 kwh. Motor X, with an efficiency of 89 per cent, will lose 11 per cent of the 177,978 kwh. The table shows the environmental aspects of these two motors based on their
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