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Received: Accepted: Anales de Edificación Vol. 1, Nº1, 1-6 (2015) ISSN: Doi: /ade Diagramas de interacción axil-flector en secciones doble T. Empleo de

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Received: Accepted: Anales de Edificación Vol. 1, Nº1, 1-6 (2015) ISSN: Doi: /ade Diagramas de interacción axil-flector en secciones doble T. Empleo de programa Matlab en aplicaciones estructurales a nivel de sección (parte I). Axial-bing interaction diagrams for I sections. Structural applications related to section study using Matlab (part I). Rodríguez Morales, Sergio INITEC Industrial Técnicas Reunidas CO. (Spain, Resumen El método multicapa es una potente herramienta de cálculo en el campo de la ingeniería para tratar problemas a nivel de sección. Este método permite tratar problemas relacionados con el comportamiento no-lineal de los materiales, el empleo de materiales con diferentes propiedades en una misma sección, o problemas relacionados con gradiente de temperatura, entre otros. Dos aplicaciones serán tratadas en dos artículos indepientes. En este documento el método multicapa se empleará para generar un diagrama de interacción axil-momento para secciones tipo doble T. La sección de acero se estudiará respecto al régimen elástico y plástico, y se propondrá un parámetro que aportará información sobre la reserva plástica de la sección, cuando actúan simultáneamente un axil y un momento flector, la denominada área plástica. Se ha empleado como entorno de programación el software Matlab para desarrollar el contenido de este artículo. Palabras clave Método multicapa; iteración; diagrama; plasticidad; acero; matlab. Abstract- Multi-layer method is a powerful tool to solve structural engineering problems from a section point of view. This method can solve problems related to non-linear material behavior, different materials at the same section, or aspects related to temperature gradient, among others. Two applications shall be explained in two separate technical papers. In this paper multilayer method shall be used to generate an axial-bing interaction diagram for I steel sections. The section shall be studied from elastic and plastic material properties and a parameter shall be proposed (plastic area) in order to obtain the plastic capacity of a section produced by axial forces and bing moment acting simultaneously. Matlab software had been employed to develop the content of this technical paper. Index Terms Multi-layer method; iteration; diagram; plasticity; steel; matlab. F I. INTRODUCTION requently it is more usual to find in technical papers, books or any documentation prepared in colleges or Sergio Rodríguez Morales, At present finishing Master of Science in Dynamics and Seismic Engineering at ETSIIM-UPM Master in Building Structures UPM-EE, Arquitecto Técnico UPM, and Associate Professor at ETSEM-UPM during 2010 to 2012 years. Civil Engineering Leader at INITEC Industrial Técnicas Reunidas CO. ( research centres, the results, calculations, numerical developments or graphics generated by software tool Matlab. Matlab is a powerful programing environment which includes thousands of predefined mathematical commands. It represents a great advantage in order to solve a wide range of engineering problems, without a deep programing knowledge from the user point of view. In the field of structural engineering, there are a several methods to study the structural behavior of a section. One of these methods is the Mutli-Layer Method which shall be 2 adopted in this technical paper. Matlab shall demonstrate the structural behavior of a section through this method, by employing two types of materials: steel and reinforced concrete. The analysis of each materials shall be discussed into two separate articles (Part I Steel and Part II Reinforced Concrete). Diagramas de interacción axil-flector en secciones doble T... (parte I). Axial-bing interaction diagrams for I sections... (part I). section in a certain number of layers or slices. Each layer can exhibit the deformation state versus an external force applied, and therefore the stress levels, whatever stress-strain material model is assumed. Among the advantages of the method are the following: non-linear material application, different material properties acting at the same section, aspects related to temperature gradient applied to a section or cracking in concrete sections, among others. In case that the forces and bing moments are generated due to normal stresses in longitudinal direction of the element (see 1 X direction), the value of force and bing moment shall be calculated by adding the whole contributions of each layer, since this process represents the concept of stress integration all along the section depth. Needless to say, as more number of layer defined the higher accuracy of the results can be produced. Fig. 1. Descriptive Sketch for Multi-Layer Method. Stress-strain model, dimensions of a general layer, axis reference together with forces are all represented. Among the possibilities of the method, non-linear material behavior treatment is one of the most significant. In part I of this article, which is discussed in succeeding pages, an interaction axial-bing diagram for I steel section types shall be developed first. This matter shall be dealt under an elastic and plastic limit states. On the latter part of this article it shall be proposed the parameter called plastic area which tries to provide information about the plastic capacity of a single section subjected simultaneously to axial force and bing moment. In the part II, which is discussed in a separate article, curvature value associated with first yielding of steel reinforcement shall be obtained. This parameter is extremely important in seismic engineering design, since together with curvature associated with ultimate moment capacity, section ductility parameter can be defined. For this purpose, stressstrain models of concrete material (Mander model) and rebar material (King model) shall be used, which shall allow to study and analyze the problem from a non-linear material behavior. In both articles two applications shall be explained technically in detail, and by means of a worked examples and the results provided by Matlab, some conclusions can be drawn. Programing codes developed in Matlab shall be shown in the appix of the articles for benefit of the readers. II. MULTI-LAYER METHOD Basically the Multi-layer method is done by dividing the Axil force Continuous way,, 0 Discrete way 1 (1) Bing Moment Continuous way 0,, Discrete way III. AXIAL-BENDING INTERATION DIAGRAM FOR I STEEL SECTIONS Most international steel codes allow to design different elements adopting a plastic limit state, as long as some geometrical and material conditions have been met. According to Ec-3 part 1-1, section 5.5, a section can be defined as compact and therefore section plastic design as suitable, if the following conditions have been fulfilled: Web Flanges Where is defined as: 1 / 396/13 1 for α 0.5 / Dimensions t represents the specified thickness of the section part, and c is the height of the web or the length of half flange. For further information refer to table 5.2 of the aforementioned code. A value equal to 0.82 is adopted conservatively for alpha parameter, since the web is subjected to compressive force and bing moment simultaneously. The advantages of plastic limit design as compared to elastic limit design is mainly bounded by the economic point S. Rodriguez of view of the material and a relationship in between section design and plastic analysis can be established directly. When a section is subjected exclusively to bing moment the variable which provides information about plastic capacity is the one called Shape Factor (f), and that is equal to the ratio between plastic and elastic modulus. Shape factor is not related to the grade of the material. Fig. 2. Normal stress diagrams due to bing moment applied in strong axis. Compact sections are those sections which can form a plastic hinge, without the reduction of capacity due to local buckling. These sections are defined in Ec-3 as Class 1 and 2. In case that a section is subjected to axial forces and bing moments acting at the same time, an interaction diagram can be generated that represents its structural behavior assuming the plastic limit state. The gradual yielding of the section is made available by the Multi-Layer Method, which under this circumstances few layers shall be dealing with axial stresses and the rest shall be dealing with flexural stresses. In 3, the procedure is explained graphically. 2) Calculate ultimate bing moment and axial force under elastic limit state. By graphical solution, interaction diagram is derived, by straight line defined by two points only. 3) By means of Multi-Layer Method, a pair of values corresponding with axial force and bing moment shall be generated, by gradually yielding ofeach fiber, as described in 3. The more pair of values obtained, the more accuracy can be attained in generating the plastic interaction diagram. 4) Once both interaction diagrams are created, these shall be represented in non-dimensional way, by dividing every single value by the ultimate values of plastic and axial bing respectively. 5) Non-dimensional interaction diagrams shall be overlapped. The difference between those enclosed areas resulted into the parameter called in this technical paper Plastic Area (see 4). Dealing with nondimensional data make it easier to derive results and therefore to make comparison with other section to establish which has the best plastic capacity. á 3 Fig. 4. Determination of Plastic Area as result of subtraction between plastic interaction diagram and elastic interaction diagram. Fig. 3. Multi-Layer Method application. External fibers deals with the flexural capacity meanwhile internal core fibers are dealing with the axial capacity. It is not necessary to mention the utility of an interaction diagram from a design point of view, but this representation cannot be limited to that extent alone. It is also possible to establish a parameter to measure the extra plastic capacity for a section if it is compared against elastic limit state. The plastic area parameter can be obtained by following the steps listed below: IV. WORKED EXAMPLE It is required to obtain the Plastic Area parameter for a built-up steel section with dimensions specified in 5, with a yield limit of 355 Mpa, and assuming an elasticperfectly plastic model. In order to avoid the strength reduction due to instability problems, member is assumed to be subjected to tensile axial force exclusively and is laterally restrained. 1) Section shall be compact according to the geometrical and material specifications in accordance with the reference code employed, otherwise plastic design criteria cannot be adopted. 4 Diagramas de interacción axil-flector en secciones doble T... (parte I). Axial-bing interaction diagrams for I sections... (part I) Fig. 5. Built-up section dimensions and stress-strain model adopted. 1) Compact Section checking. The requirements of compact sections shall be fulfilled as specified by Ec-3 as: Web / Flanges / ) Axial and bing values under elastic limit state Fig. 7. Axial force and bing moment Interaction diagram under plastic limit state. Units in KN and KNm. 4) Non-dimensional interactions diagrams. Dividing every single point by ultimate axial and ultimate plastic value respectively, the non-dimensional diagrams can be achieved. In the case of the elastic diagram the equation that described the results is the following: 1 0,1 0, / 1 Fig. 8. Non-dimensional axial force and bing moment Interaction diagram under elastic limit state. Fig. 6. Interaction axil force and bing moment Interaction diagram under elastic limit state. Units in KN and KNm. 3) Axial force and bing moment values under plastic limit state. Multi-layer method shall provide the axial and bing points which generate the interaction diagram in the plastic range. In Y-axis the ultimate plastic moment can be found and ultimate axial force in X-axis. These values and the shape factor are shown below: Fig. 9. Non-dimensional axial force and bing moment Interaction diagram under plastic limit state. As shown on the diagram represented in 9, the curve S. Rodriguez 5 is practically linear up to the axial point equal to 0.2. This aspect matches with technical reference consulted, and the reason can be attributed to little contribution of flanges to overall sectional flexural capacity. Also in 9 another conclusion can be drawn and the explanation of why codes does not considered in flexural design values of axial forces with a magnitude less than 10% of the ultimate axial capacity. As it can be seen there is no practical reduction of the bing strength capacity associated with axial magnitudes below 10%. 5) Overlapped Interaction diagrams. The consequence of overlapping the two diagrams is represented in 10. Fig. 10. Overlapping Non-dimensional axial force bing moment Interaction diagrams. In this particular case the value of the plastic area is V. CONCLUSIONS As demonstrated in this article the matlab programing software can be utilized to implement the Multi-Layer Method, and then providing good structural engineering solutions. It is also demonstrated in this article the advantages of the generation of the axial force-bing moment interaction programs for I section in plastic limit state, as a tool to obtained the plastic capacity when axil and bing acting simultaneously, by mean of the parameter Plastic Area. APPENDIX %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % MULTI LAYER METHOD FOR INTERACTION DIAGRAM % UNDER PLASTIC AND ELASTIC CRITERIA % IN I SIMETRICAL SECTIONS % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %Author: Sergio Rodríguez Morales %Date: 21th February 2015 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %El programa cálculo mediante un modelo multicapa la capacidad %resistente plástica axil y flectora de una sección en doble T. %El programa irá plastificando cada uno de las fibras definidas %empezando por asignar toda la capacidad de las fibras a la capa- %cidad a flexión de la sección, para posteriormente ir asignando %fibras plastificadas a la capacidad resistente frente a axil. % %Unidades: Todo en kp y cm, aunque la salida se representa en KN y %KN*m. De cara al exterior modernidad pero los principios clásicos. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % close all clear %1. DATA INPUT h= 30 % DEPTH SECTIONcm bf= 20 % WIDTH SECTION cm tw=1.2 % WEB THK cm tf=2 % FLENAGE THK cm fyk=3550 % STEEL YIELD LIMIT kp/cm^2 nfala=20 nfalma=20 %2.OPERATIONS %2.1. PLASTIC ANALYSIS fala=tf/nfala falma=(h/2-tf)/nfalma n=nfala+nfalma % NUMBER OF LAYERS IN ONE FLANGE % NUMBER OF LAYERS IN THE HALF WEB % FLANGE THK FOR EACH LAYER % WEB THK FOR EACH LAYER % TOTAL NUMBER OF LAYERS diagrama_flector=zeros(n+1,1) %COLUMN VECTOR OF ZEROS AND FIRST VALUE M=0 BENDING diagrama_axil=zeros(n+1,1) %COLUMN VECTOR OF ZEROS AND FIRST VALUE N=0 AXIAL %AXIAL CAPACITY FOR EACH LAYER. %RESULTS STORED IN VECTOR axilfibra if i =nfala axilfibra(i)=fala*bf*fyk if i nfala axilfibra(i)=falma*tw*fyk %DISTANCE FROM COG TO EACH LAYER %RESULTS STORED IN VECTOR distfibra distfibra=zeros(n+1,1) %DISTANCE TO FLANGES LAYERS. for i=1:(nfala) distfibra(i)=h/2-(2*i-1)*fala/2 %DISTANCE TO WEB LAYERS falma distfibra(i+nfala)=(h/2-tf)-(2*i-1)*falma/2 %LOOPING FOR CALCULATE AXIAL AND BENDING FOR EACH LAYER axil_acum=0 flector_acum=0 %TOTAL BENDING MOMENTS GENERATION % if i==1 % diagrama_flector(i,1)=0 % flector_acum=2*distfibra(i,1)*axilfibra(1,i)+flector_acum diagrama_flector(i+1,1)=flector_acum/1e4 %TOTAL AXIAL CAPACITY OF THE SECTION axil_acum=axilfibra(1,i)+axil_acum %ONLY HALF SECTION IS COMPUTED THE FINAL RESULT SHALL BE DOUBLE axil_acum=2*axil_acum %GENERATION OF AXIAL ACTING SIMULTANEASLY WITH BENDING if i==1 diagrama_axil(i,1)=axil_acum/100 if i 1 axil_acum=axil_acum-2*axilfibra(1,i-1) diagrama_axil(i,1)=axil_acum/100 %2.2 ELASTIC ANALYSIS % STRENGTH AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES h1=h/2-tf %Half web height A=2*bf*tf+(h-2*tf)*tw Ix=2*(bf/3*(h^3/8)-h1^3*(bf-tw)/3) %Second moment of inertia Wx=Ix/(0.5*h) Mel=fyk*Wx/1e4 %Elastic bing moment Nu=fyk*A/100 %Axial capacity %3. OUTOUT %PLASTIC AXIAL-BENDING INTERACTION DIAGRAM. %area(diagrama_axil,diagrama_flector,'facecolor','c') plot(diagrama_axil,diagrama_flector) title('diagrama de iteración Momento - Axil Plástico','Fontsize',16) xlabel('axil [KN]') ylabel('flector [KNm]') %ELASTIC AXIAL-BENDING INTERACTION DIAGRAM. 6 y=[0,mel] x=[nu,0] plot(x,y) title('diagrama de iteración Momento - Axil Elástico','Fontsize',16) xlabel('axil [KN]') ylabel('flector [KNm]') % PLASTIC-ELASTIC OVERLAPPING DIAGRAMS y=[0,mel] x=[nu,0] area(x,y,'facecolor','c') hold on plot(diagrama_axil,diagrama_flector,'b') title('diagrama de iteración Momento - Axil Elástico Vs. Plástico','Fontsize',16) xlabel('axil [KN]') ylabel('flector [KNm]') % PLASTIC-ELASTIC OVERLAPPING DIAGRAMS NON-DIMENSIONAL diagrama_axil_adi=diagrama_axil/nu diagrama_flector_adi=diagrama_flector/diagrama_flector(n+1,1) plot(diagrama_axil_adi,diagrama_flector_adi,'b') hold on y=[0,mel/diagrama_flector(n+1,1)] x=[1,0] plot(x,y,'r') title('diagrama de iteración Momento - Axil Elástico Vs. Plástico','Fontsize',16) xlabel('axil [adim]') ylabel('flector [adim]') Diagramas de interacción axil-flector en secciones doble T... (parte I). Axial-bing interaction diagrams for I sections... (part I). VI. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to thank to my fellow Eriberto Salumbides (Civil Engineer) for all his valuable contribution to this article. Without his critical eye the final quality of this article in English version, would be clearly reduced. REFERENCES Simoes da Silva, L.; Simoes, R.; Gervásio, H. (2010) Eurocode 3, 1-1, 9. Subramanian, N. (2008). Design of Steel Structures. Oxford University press Álvarez Cabal, R.; Benito Muñoz, J.J. (2005). Ejercicios de Estructuras Metálicas y Mixtas Volumen I: Cálculo Editorial Servicio de Publicaciones de ETSIIM-UPM. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structure Par 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings (2005). European Standard EN (2005). % PLASTIC AREA, DIFERENCE BETWEEN PLASTIC AND ELASTIC %Area UNDER STRAIGHT LINE area_recta=0.5*mel/(diagrama_flector(n+1,1))*nu/nu %AREA UNDER PLASTIC CURVE area_curva=trapz(abs(diagrama_axil_adi),abs(diagrama_flector_adi)) disp('el area y por tanto la reserva plastica del perfil es_:') area_plastica=abs(area_curva+area_recta)

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