Rãqîa' _Jacobus ThWQIII English version.pdf

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“rāqîa‘ רָקִיע” (“firmament,” “vault” in the Dead Sea Scrolls”) in eds., H-J. Fabry, U. Dahmen. Theological Dictionary of the Qumran Texts III= Theologisches Wörterbuch zu den Qumrantexten III (ThWQ III) (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2016), 720-722.

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     (yqr  as “firmament” in the Dead Sea Scrolls (ThWQ III, pp: 720-722) I. 1. Hebrew Bible. I.2 Lexical note. I.3. Differences between the MT, LXX and Qumran. 1.4. Distribution in the Dead Sea Scrolls. II. Forms unknown in biblical Hebrew. III. Cosmology. IV.  (yqr  and the calendar Literature: TDOT. XIII (M. Görg) – M.G. Abegg et al., The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible ,  New York: HarperCollins 1999. – M.G. Abegg et al., The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance: The Non-Biblical Texts from Qumran , Leiden: Brill, 2003, 692. – M.G. Abegg et al., The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance: The Biblical Texts from Qumran , Leiden: Brill, 2006, 639. – Abegg, M.G, “4Q317 (4QcryptA LuniSolar Calendar)” in the  Dead Sea Srolls Reader, v. 4 , eds., D.W. Parry and E. Tov, Leiden: Brill, 2004, 58–72. – J.M. Allegro, 4Q169 (Commentary on Nahum) , in DJD 5, 37. – M. Baillet, 4Q503 (4QDaily Prayers), in DJD 7, 105–107, 4Q504 (4QWords of the Luminaries) in DJD 7, 150–151. – P.C. Beentjes, The Book of Ben Sira in Hebrew: A Text Edition of all Extant Hebrew Manuscripts and A Synopsis of All Parallel Hebrew Ben Sira Texts , Leiden: Brill, 1997, 71, 75, (MS B), 171 (MS B and MasSir {MS M}). – S. Berrin, The Pesher Nahum Scroll from Qumran. An Exegetical Study of 4Q169 , Leiden: Brill, 2004, 40. n.6. and n.7. – F. Brown, S.R. Driver, and D.D. Briggs,  A  Hebrew and English Lexicon , Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2001, 956. – D.J.A. Clines, ed.,  Dictionary of Classical Hebrew,  Sheffield Phoenix: Sheffield, 7:552–553. . –J.R. Davila, 4Q2 (4QGen  b ), 4Q7 (4QGen g ), 4Q8 (4QGen h1 ), 4Q10 (4QGen k  ), in DJD 12. – J.R. Davila, “New Qumran Readings for Genesis One,” in Of Scribes and Scrolls , eds., H.W. Attridge et al., Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1990, 3-11. – D. Dimant, 4Q385 (4QPseudo-Ezekiel  a  )  in DJD 30, 43–44, 49. – D. Falk,    Daily, Sabbath and Festival Prayers in the Dead Sea Scrolls , Leiden: Brill, 1998, 21– 36. – F. Garcia-Martinez   and   A. van der Woude,   11Q17 (11QShirShabbat) in DJD 23, 280–281, 275–276. – F. García Martínez , “Creation in the Dead Sea Scrolls,” in The Creation of Heaven and Earth , ed. G.H. van Kooten., Leiden: Brill, 2005, 60–61. – L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner,  Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament   (5 vols; Leiden: Brill, 1996), 3:1290. – H.R. Jacobus, “Qumran Calendars and the Creation: A Study of 4QcryptA Lunisolar Calendar (4Q317),”  Journal of Ancient  Judaism  4:1 (2013), 48–104. – C.A. Newsom, 4Q403 (4QShirShabbat d ) in DJD 11, 269, 272, 276; 4Q405 (4QShirShabbat f  ) in DJD 11, 355–38. – B. Nitzan , 4Q287 (4QBerakhot  b ) in DJD 11, 51–53. – B. Nitzan , 4Q293 (4QWork Containing Prayers C) in DJD 29 , 19–22. – E. Schuller  ,  4Q428 (4QHodayot  b ) in DJD 29, 136–137; 4Q432 (4QHodayot f  ) in DJD 29, 220–221. – P.W. Skehan and A.A. Di Lella, The Wisdom of Ben Sira  (AB 39; New York: Doubleday, 1987), 493, 489. – H. Stegemann, E.M. Schuller, C.A. Newsom, 1QH a  (1QHodayot a ) in DJD 40, 76, 82, 88, 152.    – J. Strugnell and D.J. Harrington, 4Q418 (4QInstruction d ) in DJD 34, 281–291.  – J.C. Vanderkam and J.T. Milik, 4Q216 (4QJubilees a ) in DJD 13, 13–17.    – Y. Yadin, The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada  (Jerusalem: IES and the Shrine of the Book, 1965); repr. in S. Talmon,  Masada VI: The Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963–1965  (Jerusalem: IES and the Hebrew University, 1999), 187. I . 1 . In the Hebrew Bible the masculine noun  (yqr  in its meaning as “firmament,” “base,” “sky dome,” or in the construct, “firmament,” “vault,” “expanse” occurs in  total 17 times. Nine of these appear in the Creation (Gen 1:6, 7,7,7,8,14,15,17,20), five in Ezekiel (Ezek 1:22,23,25,26,10;1); twice in Psalms (Ps 19:2, 150:1) and once in Daniel (Dan 12:3). The noun is found more frequently in the Dead Sea Scrolls than in the Bible and it appears to be used exegetically at Qumran to distinguish between firmaments separating the waters from the water, the earth from the waters, and different layers of the heavens from each other. This analysis separates  (yqr  in Ezekiel from its occurrences in the Creation. There may be a hermeneutical use of the noun in Ezekiel and in pseudo-Ezekiel (4Q385) whereby the layers of the  (yqr  in the heavens are spatially defined by living, angelic creatures and the throne of God. These divisions are not described in Genesis. I.2.The root verb is  (qr  “beat, stamp, spread out” and qqr , “make thin.” It appears in related biblical Hebrew and East Semitic lexical forms with reference to “thin  bread” or “wafer” and “thin garment,” as well as in Late Babylonian for “plate,” and hammered metal, especially gold. I.3. Parts of the formula of the Creation in the LXX—i) God says “Let there be  x ”; ii) And it was so; iii) God creates  x ; iv) God says it is good; (v) completion of  x  —are missing in the MT, SP and Dead Sea Scrolls. Interestingly, in the LXX on the second day of Creation, God saw that it (  steré ! ma ) was good (LXX Gen 1:8b). (cf. LXX Dan 12:3: ouranós ) .  The affirmation of God’s work is absent from the creation of the  (yqr  in the MT and SP (Gen 1:8) although all other accomplishments in MT and SP Gen 1 are declared “good.” In the fragments where Gen 1:8 has survived at Qumran, 4Q2 (4QGen  b ) frg 1 ii 7,8,8 (DJD 12, p.33) and 4Q7 (4QGen g ) 1,6,7,8,8 (DJD 12,  p.58) part (iv) the  (yqr  as “good,” is also omitted. Additionally, in LXX Gen 1:9c, on the third day of Creation, the gathering of the waters from the dry land, part (iii) of the formula, is missing from the MT and SP (Gen 1:9). The narrative at LXX Gen 1:9c, also does not occur in 4Q2 (4QGen  b ) (DJD 12, 33) or 4Q7 {4QGen g ) (DJD 12, pp. 58-59). However, it is apparent in 4Q10 (4QGen k  ) frg 1,1 (DJD 12, p.76) and 4Q8 (4QGen h1 )(Davila, 1990, 8-11). [“And the waters under the heavens gathered to their gatherings] and the dr[y land] appeared,” translated in Abegg, et al., 1999). Therefore, 4Q10 and 4Q7 appear to know the  Hebrew Vorlage of the LXX, or a longer text. In  Jubilees , the division of the waters  by one single firmament on the third day is detailed in 4Q216 (4QJub a ) v 12-14 (part-restored) (DJD 13, pp. 13-14). I.4. In the biblical Dead Sea Scrolls related to Genesis 1 the lexeme appears 15 times (Abegg et al, 2006, p. 639). It survives in two versions of Ps 150:1, (11Q5 {11QPs a } xxvi 4) and (Mas1 f   ii 17). The lexeme occurs in one fragment from Ezekiel (Ezek 1:23), 4Q74 (4QEzek   b ) 6 ii 6. It has been reconstructed in 4Q385 (4QPseudo-Ezekiel a ) frg 6,13, 14, restored on the basis of Ezek 1.22 (DJD 30, p.49). The latter is not in Abegg et al., 2003, which excludes reconstructions and duplications in different copies of the same text. In the Creation-related passages of  Jubilees  and  Ben Sira  in the scrolls, the lexeme occurs three times in 4Q216 (4QJub a ) v 12, 13, 13; vi 6, 6 all restored (not in Abegg et al., 2003, 2006), and twice in the B text (Genizah) of  Ben Sira  (MS B 43,1,8) (not in Abegg., et al., 2003, 2006) and may be assumed in MS M 43.8d (from Masada). The lexeme appears some 32 times in the non-biblical texts including parallels in the sectarian Thanksgiving Psalms  (  Hodayot  ) 1QH a  xi 32// 4QHb (4Q428) frg 5,6  part-restored //4QpapH f   (4Q432) frg 6,6 restored (the first and last are not listed in Abegg et al., 2003). Note the old  Hodayot   verse numbering in Abegg et al., 2003: now, 1QH a v 25 (olim14), vi 41 (olim 30) in DJD 40. It is most prominent in the liturgical texts, particularly in the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice  ( Shirot ‘Olat  HaShabbat  ) from Caves 4 and 11 (15 extant and part-restored occurrences). Other  parallels include 4Q405 (4QShirShabbat f  ) 20 ii-22,8 // 11Q17 (11QShirShabb) vii 11-12 (the latter not in Abegg et al., 2003). It appears six times in the cryptic calendar 4Q317 (4QCrypticA LuniSolar Calendar) (including two restored, 4Q317 2 27; 4 30, which are not in Abegg et al., 2003, p.692). II. A plural construct form in which  (yqr  is the nomen regens  appears in the sectarian scroll  Pesher Nahum , 4QpNah (4Q169) frg 1-2,2 wym#   y( [ yq ] r  and in  poetic liturgical and wisdom scrolls from Qumran: 4QBer   b  (4Q287) 2a,b 6 ( #Odwq   y(yqrw ), (cf. 4QWords of the Luminaries/ DibHam a  {4Q504} 1-2 recto, 6: #dwq    (yqr ); 4QWork Containing Prayers C (4Q293) 1,4; 4QShirShabbat f   (4Q405)  23 i 6,7, (cf. 4Q403 {4QShirShabbat d } 1 i 42, 43); 11Q17(ShirShabbat) viii 2; x 5, 8; 4QInstruction d  (4Q418) 69 ii 15. The plural form of the noun is not attested in the Hebrew Bible nor in any of the biblical Dead Sea Scrolls. It may be an exegetical development particular to Second Temple Judaism, alluding to multiple angelic heavenly layers in Ezekiel and set in abstract, non-narrative language. III. Some non-biblical scrolls develop the cosmological concept of  (yqr  in the Creation to distinguish between the fine layers separating the waters below from the waters above, and the dry land from the waters. The singular construct in the  Hodayot    parallel texts 1QH a  xi 32// 4QHb (4Q428) frg 5,6 part-restored// 4QpapH f   (4Q432) frg 6,6 restored, has the only reference to “the expanse of dry land” h#by    (yqrbw , an allusion to Gen 1:9-11. In the Shirot  , 4Q405 (4QShirShabbat f  ) frgs 20 ii-21,22, lines 8-9 // 11Q17 (11QShirShabbat) vii 11-12,  (yqr  is repeated, thereby visually and audibly denoting the layers upon layers of the heavens, separating hierarchical angelic domains from each other and divine realms from the angels, with allusions to Ezekiel’s visions in Ezek 1:26, 10:1: ( wnnry   rw)h    (yqr   d [ whw ] .(9)  Mybwrkh    (yqrl   l(mm  ….(8) “…above the vault of the cherubs and they sing the splendour of the vault of light.” The Shirot   also describe a possible “vault of the highest heavens” (4Q403 1 i 43, 4Q405 6,4; DJD 11, 276-277). 4Q418 (4QInstruction d ) 69 ii 9 the lexeme appears as the nomens   rectum, an anthropomorphised, pluralistic construct, that is audibly and visually alliterative: ] c   lwk   wm(ryw    (yqr { h } ydswm   w(yry  “… foundations of the vault will cry out and all will thunder ts [ …” The spatial reference to the foundations of the vault (sing.) may suggest that this text understands that there is one dome with several bases, such as in the dry land, the seas and the heavenly layers. Further, in 11Q17 (11QShirShabbat) viii 5, in what appears to be a defined iconic exegesis of the vault’s construction, the text suggests that the “foundations” could be four corners, or pillars. )lphX  (6).  (yqr   ydswm   t(br)m  …(5) “…from the four foundations of the wonderful vault…”  IV. The word-combination for the “in midst of the high firmament” (abbreviated) in 4Q317 (4QCrypticA LunisolarCalendar) 1+1a,7-8 (four part restored and two restored) ( l( ) mm    (yqrh  (8) [ Kwtb  (7) appears to intersect and mirror the  phrase  (yqrl   l(mm  in the Ezek 1:26 and the Shirot   (cited above). The description of the presence of the full moon, or sun-moon conjunction, in this place high in the firmament may infer that 4Q317 is amalgamating the cosmological idea of the  (yqr  from Gen 1:14-19 and the area in the heart of the Ezekielian firmament, thereby situating the luminaries somewhere within the angelic and divine layers of the heavens. In the calendars of the priestly courses 4Q320 (4QCalendar/ Mishmarot A)1 i 3 has been restored as  ( [ yqrh ] dwsyb , “at the base of [vaul]t” (García Martínez, 2005, pp. 60-61). If he is correct, then this calendrical text would echo the idea of the foundations of the vault found in the Shirot   and 4QInstruction (cited above). An unknown lunar phase is indicated by the Hebrew word hqwd  in 4Q321 (4QCalendar/ Mishmarot B) 21 times and 4Q321a (4QCalendar/ Mishmarot A) four times (DJD 21), probably indicating the thinness of the moon (in Heb. dalet   replaces the Ar. resh ). The context and meaning of the lexeme in 4Q504 (DibHam a ) is the subject of scholarly disagreement. It was textually placed by Baillet (DJD 7 150-151) as the angelic realm of the holy vault (DJD 7: 4Q504 vii 6) (1-2 recto) #dwq    (yqr    Myk)lm   lwk  in a Sabbath prayer. 4Q503 1-6, 1 has been completely revised and reconstructed by Falk (1998, pp. 33-34). He places  M [ y ] m#h    (yqr [ in the first line of a totally different textual reading and arrangement of fragments, opening a doxology to the first month of a year beginning in the spring with a different recitable rhythm.  Not only is  (yqr  thematically complicated as a concept of a fine boundary  between difference kinds of domains but it is declared “good” in the LXX but not in the MT and SP. Yet this does not affect its positive status in the scrolls where  (yqr  appears with more frequency than it does in the Bible. Due the rigid formula of the creation account and the agreement between LXX Gen 1.9c and 4Q10 and 4Q7, it is likely that the proto-MT reflected in 4Q2, 4Q7 contains accidental minuses by scribal error in Genesis 1:8b, as well as Gen 1:9c. With the final publication of the scrolls accomplished, one may now also suggest that the poetic liturgical texts probably
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