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Institutionen för systemteknik Department of Electrical Engineering Examensarbete Survey of Mobile Communication Systems and Handover within and between Selected Mobile Networks Master thesis performed in Division of Information Coding Liang Chen LiTH-ISY-EX--08/4060--SE Linköping 2008 TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLAN LINKÖPINGS UNIVERSITET Department of Electrical Engineering Linköping University S Linköping, Sweden Linköpings tekniska högskola Institutionen för systemteknik Linköping Survey of Mobile Communication Systems and Handover within and between Selected Mobile Networks Master thesis in Information Coding at Linköping Institute of Technology by Liang Chen LiTH-ISY-EX--08/4060--SE Supervisor: Peter Johansson isy, Linköpings universitet Examiner: Robert Forchheimer isy, Linköpings universitet Linköping Presentation Date Publishing Date (Electronic version) Department and Division Department of Electrical Engineering Division of Information Coding Linköpings universitet SE Linköping, Sweden Language English Other (specify below) Number of Pages 77 Type of Publication Licentiate thesis Degree thesis Thesis C-level Thesis D-level Report Other (specify below) ISBN (Licentiate thesis) ISRN: LiTH-ISY-EX--08/4060--SE Title of series (Licentiate thesis) Series number/issn (Licentiate thesis) URL, Electronic Version Publication Title :Survey of Mobile Communication Systems and Handover within and between Selected Mobile Networks Author Liang Chen Keywords : wireless system, cellular network, heterogeneous wireless networks, system architecture, interworking, vertical handover Abstract After more than two decades development, modern mobile cellular networks now have almost approached to the commercial level of fourth generation communication networks. For each of the mobile solutions, there are special attributes but also similarities compared to the other competitive solutions. We can also find relationships between the old generation solutions and the inheritors or innovations. During the communicating session using any kind of existing mobile handset, the handover procedure is a very important one that may effect connection quality and also the phone call continuity. Nowadays, the mobile cellular networks have a trend to interact with LAN networks. They will co-exist and work together to support higher data rate over a wider coverage. Seamless handover proposals like Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) can support the heterogeneous handover between Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Wireless (Wi-Fi) Network. Several Media Independent Handover (MIH) proposals can handle the vertical handover in the hybrid mobile data network environment such like between wireless local area network (WLAN) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) by different solutions. Number of pages: 77 Abstract After more than two decades development, modern mobile cellular networks now have almost approached to the commercial level of fourth generation communication networks. For each of the mobile solutions, there are special attributes but also similarities compared to the other competitive solutions. We can also find relationships between the old generation solutions and the inheritors or innovations. During the communicating session using any kind of existing mobile handset, the handover procedure is a very important one that may effect connection quality and also the phone call continuity. Nowadays, the mobile cellular networks have a trend to interact with LAN networks. They will co-exist and work together to support higher data rate over a wider coverage. Seamless handover proposals like Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) can support the heterogeneous handover between Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Wireless (Wi-Fi) Network. Several Media Independent Handover (MIH) proposals can handle the vertical handover in the hybrid mobile data network environment such like between wireless local area network (WLAN) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) by different solutions. Keywords wireless system, cellular network, heterogeneous wireless networks, system architecture, interworking, vertical handover I Acronym in Paper: 16QAM 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 3G third generation 3GPP2 3rd Generation Partnership Project2 8PSK 8-phase shift keying AAA Authentication Authorization Accounting AES Advanced Encryption Standard AIMD Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Services AR Access Router ASCONF Address Configuration BS Base Station BWE Bandwidth Estimation CA Congestion Avoidance CCM mode of operation for cryptographic block ciphers CDMA Code division multiple access CMAC Cipher-based MAC CN Core Network CoA Care of Address CPICH Common Pilot Channel cwnd congestion window DAR dynamic address reconfiguration II DL downlink DLNA Digital Living Network Alliance DSCP differentiated services code point DSSS direct-sequence spread spectrum DWRR Deficit weighted round robin EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution EGPRS GPRS operating over EDGE ETA European Total Access ETACS Communication System EV-DO Evolution-Data Optimized FBSS Fast BS Switching FDMA Frequency division multiple access FH Fixed Host FL forward link FMIPv6 Mobile Ipv6 Fast Handover protocol GPRS General packet Radio Service GSM Global System for Mobile Communications HARQ hybrid automatic repeat-request HHO Hard Handover HMAC Hash Message Authentication Code HMM Handover Management Module HO Handover III HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access HSOPA High Speed OFDM Packet Access HS-PDSCH High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol IEEE institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IP Internet Protocol IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4 IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 IS-2000 Interim Standard 2000 IS-95 Interim Standard 95 ITU International Telecommunication Union MAC Media Access Control MBWA Mobile Broadband Wireless Access MC Mobile Client MDHO Macro Diversity Handover MH Mobile Host MICS Media Independent Command Service MIES Media Independent Event Service MIH Media Independent Handover MIIS Media Independent Information Service MIMO multiple-input multiple-output MMS Multimedia Message Service IV MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching MS Mobile Station M-SCTP Mobile SCTP NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone NTT Nippon Telephone and Telegraph OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access PDC personal digital cellular PHY Physical layer PLMN Public Land Mobile Network POA Point of Attachment QoS Quality of Service QPSK Quadrature phase-shift keying Reno-RR Reno regional registration RL reverse link RNC Radio Network Controller RR rake receiver RRC Radio Resource Control RSS Received signal strength RTT Round trip time SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol SDMA Spatial Division Multiple Access SIM Subscriber Identity Module V SMS Short Message Service SMS Short Message Service SOFDMA scalable orthogonal frequency-division multiple access SS Slow Start ssthresh slow-start threshold TACS Total Access Communication System TCP Transmission Control Protocol TDMA Time division multiple access UE user equipment UL uplink UMA Unlicensed Mobile Access UMB Ultra Mobile Broadband UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UNC UMA network controller USIM UMTS Subscriber Identity Module VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol W-CDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WFQ Weighted fair queuing Wi-Fi wireless Fidelity WIMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WLAN wireless local area network WRR Weighted round robin ZWA Zero Window Advertisement VI Table of Contents Abstract... I Acronym in Paper...II 1 Introduction and Retrospection General Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems WLAN G and 2.75G Mobile Systems The Third Generation of Mobile Systems G Systems and Beyond Pre-4G Evaluation and Comparison within Different Systems Parameters and Numerical Comparison View on QoS in packet-switched networks Handover in Special Mobile Systems Handover in UMTS Handover in WiMAX Handover in Wi-Fi Unlicensed Mobile Access General Introduction to UMA Handovers in UMA Mobility Aspects Relating to Wi-Fi and UMA-UMA Some Issues Related to Applications on Industrial level and Commercial Implementations for UMA Media Independent Handover Horizontal Handover and Vertical Handover Hybrid Handover Structure... 45 6.3 Multi-Access Schemes Using Multi-Interface Alternatively Used Multi-Interface Single Interface for Multiple Access Multi-Interface Scheme Proposal TCP in MIH for Hybrid Networks and Seamless Handover General TCP with Wired and Wireless Links TCP for Seamless Vertical Handover Simulation and Performance for the Proposed TCP Scheme Vertical Handover with SCTP Proposal Mobile SCTP Property by using SCTP for Vertical Handover Proposed M-SCTP Vertical Handover Scheme Simulation Result analysis and Comparison with TCP Proposal Summary and Works in Future References Appendix... 76 Table of Figures Figure 2.1: Typical IEEE Configuration in Infrastructure Mode... 4 Figure 2.2 GPRS transfer data to Internet... 5 Figure 2.3 Structure of HSDPA Figure 4.1 Hard Handover in UMTS Figure 4.2 Soft handover in UMTS Figure 4.3 Softer Handover in UMTS Figure 4.4 WiMAX network architecture with two IP subnets Figure 4.5 WiMAX network architecture with BS integrated in AR Figure 4.6 Physical parameters in the handover procedure Figure 5.1 UMA access to cellular network Figure 5.2 Procedures during GSM-UMA handover Figure 5.3 Procedures during UMA-GSM handover Figure 5.4 UMA and Internet Offload structure in Wi-Fi Figure 5.5 Data transfer paths for different applications in Dual-Mode Phone Figure 6.1 WLAN and 3G Integration Network Architecture Figure 6.2 Handover Procedures in 3G and WLAN Integration Networks Figure 7.1 Layers and RRC Figure 7.2 Congestion Window Size vs. Time for downward vertical handover Figure 7.3 Sequence No. vs. Time for downward handover Figure 7.4 Sequence No. vs. Time for upward handover Figure 8.1 Vertical Handover through SCTP Figure 8.2 Architecture of UMTS/WLAN Vertical Handover by Applying M-SCTP Figure 8.3 Vertical Handover procedures (FS is in single home configuration) Figure 8.4 Vertical Handover procedures (FS in dual homing configuration) Figure 8.5 Delay performance from UMTS to WLAN... 66 Figure 8.6 Delay performance from WLAN to UMTS Figure 8.7 Throughput performance relating to vertical handover in SCTP Figure 8.8 Comparison of the uplink delay performances between TCP and SCTP Figure 8.9 Comparison of the downlink delay performances between TCP and SCTP... 70 Table List Table 3.1 Internet access methods in wired and wireless systems Table 3.2 Throughput comparison among different standards Table 3.3 Frequencies and Spectrum Type Comparison Table 3.4 Allocated Spectrum per Channel (MHz) Table 3.5 Spectral efficiency (Bits per second per Hz)... 20 1 Introduction and Retrospection In the modern world, people communicate with each other more and more tightly because of all kinds of advanced communication solutions. Traditional telephone can not satisfy the growing demands in an informational fast pace society. The Mobile phone makes the user be able to initiate or receive a voice call from anywhere within the service coverage. Messages can be sent by just flipping the keyboard. Things become more instantly to be solved via a cell phone or a laptop within an IP based wireless network. But for the cellular network and the wireless solutions themselves, the way they passed by was not that easy. All of these have gone through a long term development, and are still on their way to go forward. The cellular concept was invented by Bell Laboratories. However, the first commercial analog voice system was introduced in Stockholm in October The first generation analog cordless phone and cellular systems became popular using the design based on a standard known as Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS). Similar standards were developed around the world including Total Access Communication System (TACS), Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) 450, and NMT 900 in Europe; European Total Access Communication System (ETACS) in the United Kingdom; C-450 in Germany; and Nippon Telephone and Telegraph (NTT), JTACS, and NTACS in Japan. [1] In contrast to the first-generation analog systems, second-generation systems are designed to use digital transmission. These systems include the Pan-European Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and DCS 1800 systems, North American dual-mode cellular system Interim Standard (IS)-54, North American IS-95 system, and Japanese personal digital cellular (PDC) system [2]. For the latter existing or laboratory level cellular systems, we will study particularly in the coming chapter. 1 On the wireless system side, the prevailing wisdom is that without the cluster of wired connection to consumer equipment, Internet access will be more convenient and enjoyable. So Wi-Fi system was standard and has been implemented all over the world right now. Further research for compatible innovated solutions are still going such like Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA). Currently, the focus of the research and design relating to cellular and wireless networks are mainly on the third and fourth generation communication. We will give our introduction to various kinds of cellular solutions in Chapter 2. In Chapter 2, system architectures and properties will be mentioned such as modulation technique and bandwidths e.g.. These systems which have genetic connection will be discussed together. The organization of Chapter 2 attempts to follow the chronological sequence of the wireless and cellular communication developments. In here, it also means to follow the sequence of advancements. In Chapter 3, numerical data collection and analysis between the systems are applied. Parameters are classified from different aspects. We researched the Internet access methods, radio technique, throughput, frequencies, spectrum type, and spectrum efficiency. If Chapter 2 tries to explain the system vertically by introducing them individually, the third chapter would be the horizontal comparison from another angle. In cellular and wireless communication, the handover refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. During the connecting period, handover is very important since mobile terminals are not in stable positions. They always move forward or toward to the home stations and the same cases are true about the substitute stations. We discuss the handover mechanisms in UMTS, WiMAX, Wi-Fi system in Chapter 4. We give a panorama of the procedures and the organizations inside each handover mechanism. Handover characteristics for every mobile system are presented with details. 2 Now and in the future, the interaction between WLAN and cellular network in a wide area will become extremely frequent. Hybrid system will be the most popular solution in the coming future to support IP packets based data communication. Due to this reason, handovers between heterogeneous networks in communication field will be most interesting to be researched. Chapter 5 presents a handover solution between Wi-Fi system and GSM network. Handover procedures and mobility aspects will be discussed, and industrial implementations and practical experiences will also be mentioned. Chapters 6, 7, 8 will focus on the vertical handover between next generation cellular network and wireless network (Wi-Fi mainly). We studied on several proposals. Each of them comes up with the idea from a different way. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss TCP and SCTP proposals for media impendent handover. Structures and principles will be mentioned. Some simulation result and comparisons are commented on. 3 2 General Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems 2.1 WLAN IEEE is a standard radio technology used for wireless local area networks. This standard was developed by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers). It is composed of several standards adapting for different radio frequencies: most common used b is a standard for wireless LAN using the 2.4 GHz spectrum with a maximum data rate of 11 Mbps. Since Wi-Fi networks can support a decent high data rate, its network is mostly preferred in such hotspots and public areas like airports, hotels and where people gather. Special Wi-Fi networks may need to be manually configured and authentication performed to get access similar to activate local cable networks. Figure 2.1: Typical IEEE Configuration in Infrastructure Mode [3] 4 2.2 2G and 2.75G Mobile Systems General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) GPRS is a packet based wireless communication service designed for continuous connection to the Internet for portable terminals such as 2.5G cell phones and laptops. Qualified data rate (56Kbps up to 114 Kbps) support the users to join in video-conferences and browse multimedia Web sites. GPRS is based on GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and complements existing services such as circuit-switched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS). Figure 2.2 illustrates the network topology in an GPRS system. Figure 2.2 GPRS transfer data to Internet [4] 5 2.75G Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) EDGE in GSM enhances existing GPRS/GSM infrastructure and increases speeds up to 384kbps.EDGE is able to use existing GSM/GPRS frequency bands (800,900,1800 and 1900MHz) to generate a compatible transmit speed and compliance with IMT GPRS and EDGE have the same symbol throughput rate the former one represents a bit via 1 symbol. EDGE triples the bit rate by using a modulation technique called 8-phase shift keying (8PSK) and 9 different coding schemes. Although EDGE is considered as a 3G network technology, it is generally classified as the informal standard 2.75G due to its slower network speed. EDGE can be used for any packet switched application like an Internet connection. High-speed video services and other multimedia applications can be run through EDGE due to the qualified data capacity. 2.3 The Third Generation of Mobile Systems Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) UMTS is one of the third-generation cell phone technologies. The most common form of UMTS now uses W-CDMA as the underlying air interface. It is standardized by the 3GPP, one of the European solutions to fulfill the ITU IMT-2000 requirements for 3G cellular radio systems. UMTS seeks to build on and extend the capacity of existing mobile cordless and satellite technologies by enlarging the data transmission rate and a far greater range of services using an innovative radio access scheme and an enhanced evolving core network. 6 Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) W-CDMA is a type of 3G cellular network. Technically, it is a wideband spread-spectrum air interface. Together with UMTS it represents a complete 3G protocol standard. W- CDMA utilizes the direct sequence Code Division Multiple Access signalling method to offer a higher speed and support more users than 2G networks. In W-CDMA, the radio channels are 5MHz wide and the chip rate is 3.84 Mcps. W- CDMA supports two basic modes of frequency division and time division and uses the multicode transmission. The current systems use frequency division, one frequency for uplink and one for downlink. For time division in UMTS, fifteen slots are used per radio frame. W-CDMA supports inter-cell asynchronous operation. It has variable mission on a 10ms basis. Adaptive power control in this network is based on Signal-to- Interference Ratio. Multiuser detection and smart antennas are implemented to increase the capacity and coverage. Soft handov
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