Ing. Andre Gleser. Autoreferát dizertačnej práce CHALLENGES FOR AUTO-ID SYSTEMS IN MANUFACTURING VYUŽITIE AUTOMATICKÝCH ID SYSTÉMOV VO VÝROBE - PDF

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Ing. Andre Gleser Autoreferát dizertačnej práce CHALLENGES FOR AUTO-ID SYSTEMS IN MANUFACTURING VYUŽITIE AUTOMATICKÝCH ID SYSTÉMOV VO VÝROBE na získanie akademickej hodnosti doktor (philosophiae, PhD.)

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Ing. Andre Gleser Autoreferát dizertačnej práce CHALLENGES FOR AUTO-ID SYSTEMS IN MANUFACTURING VYUŽITIE AUTOMATICKÝCH ID SYSTÉMOV VO VÝROBE na získanie akademickej hodnosti doktor (philosophiae, PhD.) v doktorandskom študijnom programe: Rádioelektronika v študijnom odbore Elektronika Miesto a dátum: Bratislava, júl 2016 SLOVENSKÁ TECHNICKÁ UNIVERZITA V BRATISLAVE FAKULTA ELEKTROTECHNIKY A INFORMATIKY Ing. Andre Gleser Autoreferát dizertačnej práce CHALLENGES FOR AUTO-ID SYSTEMS IN MANUFACTURING VYUŽITIE AUTOMATICKÝCH ID SYSTÉMOV VO VÝROBE na získanie akademickej hodnosti doktor (philosophiae doctor, PhD.) v doktorandskom študijnom programe: Rádioelektronika Miesto a dátum: Bratislava, júl 2016 Dizertačná práca bola vypracovaná v externej forme doktorandského štúdia na Ústave elektroniky a fotoniky FEI STU Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava. Predkladateľ: Ing. Andre Gleser, Gleser GmbH, Stahlstr. 16, Velbert, Germany Školiteľ: doc. Ing. Oldřich Ondráček, PhD., Ústav elektroniky a fotoniky FEI STU Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava Oponenti: prof. Ing. Milan Štork, CSc., Katedra aplikované elektroniky a telekomunikací, Fakulta elektrotechnická ZČU v Plzni, Univerzitní 26, Plzeň Ing. Ivan Gašparík, PhD., Špeciálne systémy a software, Líščie údolie 29, Bratislava Autoreferát bol rozoslaný dňa... Obhajoba dizertačnej práce sa koná dňa o hod. na Ústave elektroniky a fotoniky FEI STU Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava, blok E, 6. poschodie. prof. Dr. Ing. Miloš Oravec dekan FEI STU Bratislava 2 ABSTRACT Key words: Automatic identification and data capture (Auto-ID), Radio frequency identification (RFID), Glauto process, process analysing tools Automatic identification and data capture (Auto-ID) refers to the methods of automatically identifying objects, collecting data about them, and entering that data directly into computer systems. Short product life cycles and a constantly decreasing amount of repeated orders in the area of industrial engineering require an adaptation of existing IT concepts like EDM (Engineering Data Management) as well as PDM (Product Data Management). Auto-ID can help to counteract to that development. The aim is to regenerate the loss of productivity again considering a wide range of production environments ranging from small batch productions to bulk applications. Essential for profound process analysis of case studies are the available process-analysing tools. Existing process-analysing tools can only be used for a rough process understanding for Auto-ID applications. The problem is that the existing methods are not designed for Auto-ID applications and crucial information are missing. Therefore the new and original Glauto (Gleser + Auto-ID) process chain paradigm was developed. It is a specialised process-analysing tool for Auto-ID applications, which offers also the possibility to calculate key figures. Glauto process chain paradigm is applied to two different case studies: one small batch production and one bulk application. The concepts are analysed considering technical as well as financial aspects. With the help of Glauto process chain paradigm and financial calculations open rationalisation potential is recognised. One of the hardest questions to answer for the implementation of a new technology is the balance or the compromise of technical possibilities and financial reasonableness. Improvements of the possibilities to academically answer this question are offered by generating functions for costs and benefits for the two considered case studies. This procedure gives the possibility to become acquainted with the economic aspects starting from the technical options. A more and more quickly changing market requires real time data respectively analysis for decision makers to react flexible to a changing inquiry situation, new trends or delivery problems. For the two considered case studies it has to be stated that the most important part when applying Auto-ID technology to an existing system is to profound question the design of the desired system and consider the important interfaces and influences for an optimum realistic financial calculation. 3 ABSTRAKT Kľúčové slová: Automatická identifikácia a zber dát (Auto-ID), vysokofrekvenčná identifikácia (RFID), Glauto proces, nástroje procesnej analýzy Automatická identifikácia a zber dát (Auto-ID) sa vzťahuje na metódy automatického zisťovania objektov, zhromažďovanie údajov o nich, a spracovanie týchto údajov pomocou počítačových systémov. Krátke životné cykly výrobkov a sústavne klesajúci počet opakovaných zákaziek v oblasti priemyselnej výroby vyžadujú úpravy existujúcich IT konceptov, ako napríklad EDM (Engineering Data Management) alebo PDM (Product Data Management). Auto-ID aplikácie môže byť protiváhou tohto vývoja. Cieľom je regenerácia klesajúcej produktivity pri zohľadnení širokej škály výrobných prostredí, od malosériovej výroby až k hromadnej produkcii. Pre procesnú analýzu prípadových štúdií majú podstatný význam nástroje procesnej analýzy, ktoré sú k dispozícii. Existujúce nástroje procesnej analýzy je možné použiť iba pre základné pochopenie Auto-ID aplikácií. Problém spočíva v tom, že existujúce metódy nie sú navrhované pre Auto-ID aplikácie a chýbajú v nich podstatné informácie. Z toho dôvodu bol vyvinutý pôvodný a originálny model postupového reťazca Glauto systému (Gleser + Auto-ID). Je to špecializovaný nástroj procesnej analýzy pre Auto-ID aplikácie, ktorý súčasne ponúka možnosť kalkulácie kľúčových číselných hodnôt. Systém Glauto bol aplikovaný na dve rôzne prípadové štúdie: jedna sa týka malosériovej výroby, druhá hromadnej produkcie. Pri analýze jednotlivých konceptov sú zohľadnené jednak technické a jednak finančné aspekty. Pomocou systému Glauto je možné rozpoznať potenciál racionalizácie finančných kalkulácií. Jednou z najzložitejších otázok, na ktorú je treba pri rozhodovaní o zavedení novej technológie nájsť odpoveď, je nájdenie vyváženosti alebo kompromisu medzi technicky realizovateľnými možnosťami a primeranosťou nákladov, ktoré sú s tým spojené. Zlepšenie možností pre akademické zodpovedanie týchto otázok je cesta generovania funkcií pre náklady a prínosy, ako to je uskutočnené vo dvoch prípadových štúdiách, ktoré sú prezentované v práci. Tento postup umožňuje zoznámiť sa s hospodárskymi aspektmi, ktoré vyplývajú z technických možností. Stále rýchlejšie nastupujúce zmeny trhu si vyžadujú dostupnosť dát v reálnom čase a vypracovanie analýz pre vedúcich pracovníkov tak, aby mohli flexibilne reagovať na meniace sa výsledky prieskumov, na nové trendy alebo na problémy, ktoré sa týkajú dodávok. Pre dve uvažované prípadové štúdie je potrebné konštatovať, že najdôležitejšou časťou pri aplikovaní Auto-ID technológie na daný systém je návrh designu požadovaného systému a vytvorenie dôležitých prepojení a vplyvov pre dosiahnutie optimálnej a reálnej finančnej kalkulácie. 4 CONTENTS 1 Introduction Aims of the Dissertation Thesis Research Method Auto-ID Fundamentals Development of the Glauto Process Chain Paradigm Results and Discussion of the Study Auto-ID in Small Batch Productions Auto-ID in Bulk Applications The Reasonable Degree of Visibility Summary of Results and Future Orientations Conclusion References List of Author s Paper Resumé 1 INTRODUCTION Auto-ID has gained more and more usage and attention in the last few years. The goal for industrial applications is slightly different than for access control applications. Chip cards and biometrics are mainly used for access control applications. This dissertation thesis deals with RFID in manufacturing. Therefore the focus will be on the industrial applications. Chip cards and biometrics will not be considered in the further development of this thesis. In common it can be stated that especially the RFID sector is supposed to grow enormous from 7,6 US$ billions in US$ billions 2013 to 10 US$ billions in 2014, which is one indicator that this technology gains more and more usage in the industry but also in our everyday life [1]. The Auto-ID technologies magnetics stripes and smart cards suffer from mechanical wear and need contract to the reader while being read. Machine vision systems, barcodes and RFID do not undertake any mechanical wear. Thus these three technologies get used in the industry. Machine vision systems are mainly used when there is a need to compare a product with a picture for a certain decision of a machine. Equally to barcodes they need a line of sight to be read. RFID systems do not have that disadvantage [2]. In addition to that many studies state that there is much more development potential for RFID transponders (compare Fig. 1.1). In contrast the barcode technology has reached its maximum usage level. Fig. 1.1: S-curves of the barcode and RFID technology [3] But also the RFID technology has its limit, which is not defined by the technology itself. Problems are recognised as below. cost/insufficient ROI, lack of knowledge and understanding, maturity of the company, perceived maturity of the technology/ marketplace [4]. This represents one side, the other are concerns regarding data security. With the invention of RFID systems in 2003 a widespread discussion regarding privacy has started and is still on going. The US consumer protection CASPIAN (Consumer Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion And Numbering) wanted customers to boycott Wal-Mart, Benetton and Gillette at that time because they announced the use of RFID. At that time the use of RFID was criticised in Germany too. Since then representatives of the economy, representatives for data security, representatives of the states of Germany, EU committees, data security associations and employees of scientific institutes express their opinions to 6 social and data security laws. There has not only been an announcement of point of views. Nevertheless first requirements for the use of RFID regarding data security have been stated [5]. Nowadays RFID transponders are widely spread among different sectors. The first applications are to be recognised around 1944 in military applications Fig After this Stockmans followed with his peerto-peer communication and then approximately 25 years later with smaller and cheaper transponders mass applications started anti theft applications and the identification of farm animals. Fig. 1.2: Milestones of the RFID development [3] Based on cumulating the sales from 1944 to 2005 the main sectors for RFID usage are to be found in Fig In this thesis some of the case studies are situated in the manufacturing sector but are at the same time partly suppliers for the automotive industry which gathers 42% of the sold transponders. Thus it can happen and happened to the considered small batch production that automotive customers require their ordered products equipped with RFID transponders (Fig. 1.3). 75 3% 100 4% % % 3% % 80 3% Passanger transport / automotive % Financial, security, safety Retail / consumer goods Leisure Laundry Books, libaries, archiving Manufacturing Animals & farming Healthcare Airlines & Airports Land and sea logistics/ postal Military Other Fig. 1.3: Cumulative number of tags 1944 to end 2005 (millions) [6] 7 2 AIMS OF THE DISSERTATION THESIS The challenges in the area of industrial engineering caused by turbulent production environment (shorter product lifecycles and a constantly downsizing amount of repeated orders) require an adaption of existing IT concepts like EDM (engineering data management) as well as PDM (product data management). The costs of implementation, problems with data security but also the need to improve the handling of complex processes to operate profitable as a company require the synthesis in an integrative engineering process. Auto-ID Concepts respectively Auto-ID applications offer the possibility to create analysis in real time with simultaneously recorded data. Especially in global operating companies data have to be accessible immediately at different locations - not only for the controlling department. That can be data, which directly concern the production planning and control or on the other hand data from the maintenance respectively inventory. Implementation costs and the effort of implementation respectively duration are factors, which decision makers in the industry partly lead to cancel Auto-ID projects at early stages. The gathering of personal data and personal times to create post calculations in real time, doubtless contain risks regarding data privacy. The objectives of the dissertation thesis are summarised in the following points. Development of a universal method for process recording specialised for Auto- ID applications Essential for profound process analysis of case studies are the available process-analysing tools. Existing process-analysing tools can only be used for a rough process understanding for Auto-ID applications. The problem is that the existing methods are not designed for Auto-ID applications and crucial information is missing. Therefore the Glauto process chain paradigm is developed. It is a specialised process-analysing tool for Auto-ID applications, which offers also the possibility to calculate key figures Development of requirements for different Auto-ID case studies in manufacturing. o Design and analysis of the case study Auto-ID in small batch applications The analysis of the case study small batch application should contain two main parts: Technical aspects, financial aspects. In order to understand the process of the case study correctly the Glauto process chain paradigm will be used. This tool is designed to analyse, design and optimise process chain elements especially for Auto- ID applications. The expertise of the small batch application should be completed with the financial aspects. It will include a cost benefit calculation executed by the net present value method. The reason for choosing this method is that the main part of series of cash flows for Auto-ID investments are enlarged to a time period of several years. The net present value method considers the discount factor, which makes it possible to compare payments done at different dates. 8 o Design and analysis of the case study Auto-ID in bulk applications Analogue to the previous case study this analysis of the case bulk application study should also contain two main parts: Technical aspects, financial aspects. Due to higher quantities of products being handled a more productive Auto-ID system has to be invented which is able to do more scans/ reads in a shorter time period. Concluding this there are on one hand other requirements on an Auto-ID system and on the other hand higher quantities, which should result also in more interesting cost benefit calculation. Like the small batch application chapter this chapter will also be based on a case study, which will be a European logistics centre for the textile industry situated in the southern part of Germany. o Development of the discrepancy regarding Auto-ID requirements between mass - and small batch production In this section all technical- and financial details of the two case studies will be compared and the discrepancy between the two case studies will be presented. Comparison of technical aspects The comparison will include the used frequency, type of system (active or passive system), type of coupling, reading rate and speed, the sensitivity against electromagnetic interfering fields, the influence of humidity and metal, the possibility of reading transponders in bunch, the design of the transponder and the storage capacity. Beside the comparison of the hardware the comparison of the two processes of the two case studies will be executed via the Glauto process key figures. The structure of the processes as well as the degree of automation will be compared. Comparison of financial aspects For both case studies the net present value method is executed in the belonging chapters. This makes it possible to compare the results. Development of the reasonable degree of visibility Especially for logistic applications visibility is a frequently discussed topic in the management level of companies. According to some expert s opinion 30 % of the core data, which are used to manage the supply chain are not correct. Thus it is difficult to make the right decision for logistic managers. Auto- ID will improve the visibility. But what is reasonable degree of visibility? The optimal degree of visibility would be optimal financial solution but for the reasonable degree additionally non-quantifiable aspects will be considered. o Develop the reasonable degree of visibility for the two case studies One of the hardest questions to answer for the implementation of a new technology is the balance or the compromise of technical possibilities and financial reasonableness. Improvements of the possibilities to academically answer this question are given in the chapter The reasonable degree of visibility by generating functions for costs and benefits for the two considered case studies. Summarising the purpose of the dissertation is to create concepts respectively analyse already implemented applications of the Auto-ID technology for factories of the next generation as well as examine the realisability based on profitability [7]. 9 3 RESEARCH METHOD This chapter is dealing with the research method. In the following is to be found first the fundamentals of the Auto-ID technology, which is followed by the problem description. In chapter 3.2 a new and original method for the structured analysis of Auto-ID applications will be developed and described. 3.1 Auto-ID Fundamentals In the last few years the Auto-ID technologies got widely spread which caused the raise of the competitive pressure among other things. Mainly in procurement, production and outbound logistics but even in the trade business this technology reached the status of carrying a great weight. To offer structured data is the main task as well as the goal of the Auto-ID technology. Automatic data collection in comparison to manual data collection has significant advantages: It is less error-prone, faster as well as more efficient. Even experienced users do not have a good overview of the market because of its many available components. There are four different Auto-ID systems that are mainly used nowadays: optical character recognition (OCR), chip cards, RFID and biometrical systems [8]. In the following the systems from Fig. 3.1 are shortly described to offer an overview of the different Auto-ID technology. More details of the particular technologies are to be found in their respective chapters. Fig. 3.1: Mainly used Auto-ID Methods [9] In the following the systems from the above figure are shortly described to offer the interested reader an overview of the different Auto-ID-Technology. More details of the particular technologies are to be found in their respective chapters. Chip cards Electronic data storage can be found in common chip cards. To prevent the chip from loss or failure caused by impacts it is integrated in a plastic housing in check card size. If it is necessary an addition with a microprocessor is possible. By adding this component the card changes its name. It is not called memory card as before without a microprocessor, it is now called chip card. With the invention of static callbox 198 the first mass application started on the German market. To activate the chip card respectively the processor it has to be supplied with energy and a work cycle. The supplier for this is the data collection device. This is also in connection with the main disadvantage of chip cards: It is very
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