Curs Injectia Maselor Plastice 1_38

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=====================================================================rcalizat de ing. Sorin Ilic CURS DESPRE TEHNOLOGIA DE INJECTARE A MATERIALELOR TERMOPLASTICE CUPRINS: CAP.I-0BTINEREA MATERIALELOR TERMOPLASTICE CAP.2-STRUCTURA INTERNA A MATERlALELOR TERMOPLASTICE CAP.3-MATERlALE DE ADAUS iN STRUCTURA MATERlALELOR PLASTICE CAPA-PRINCIPALELE CARACTERlSTICI TEHNOLOGICE ALE UNOR MATERIALE TERMOPLASTICE CAP.5-PRINCIPALELE PROCESE ALE TEHNOLOGIEI DE INJECTARE CAP.6-TEHNOLOGIA INJECT ARlI CAP.7-ME

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  =====================================================================rcalizatdeing.SorinIlic CURSDESPRETEHNOLOGIADEINJECTAREAMATERIALELORTERMOPLASTICE CUPRINS: CAP.I-0BTINEREAMATERIALELORTERMOPLASTICECAP.2-STRUCTURAINTERNAAMATERlALELORTERMOPLASTICECAP.3-MATERlALEDEADAUSiNSTRUCTURAMATERlALELORPLASTICECAPA-PRINCIPALELECARACTERlSTICITEHNOLOGICEALEUNORMATERIALETERMOPLASTICECAP.5-PRINCIPALELEPROCESEALETEHNOLOGIEIDEINJECTARECAP.6-TEHNOLOGIAINJECTARlI .\1\ CAP.7-METODOLOGIADESCHIMBAREAPRODUCTlElPE0MASINADEINJECTAT\:~CAP.8-DEFECTE,CAUZESIREMEDII I ====================================================== ===========================1/132  =====================================================================realizatdeing.SorinIlie CAP.I-0BTINEREAMATERIALELORPLASTICE 1.1.DEFINlREAMATERIALELORTERMOPLASTICE Materialeletermoplasticesuntmaterialechimiceorganiceconstituitedinmacromoleculecareaucascheletatomidecarbon(C)decaresuntlegatiatomidealteelementechimicesimplecumar fi: y hidrogenul y azotul)-fluorul y oxigenul y siliciul y sulful y clorul,...Fiindmaterialechimiceorganicemaseleplasticeseobtinprinreactiichimicedinprodusenaturalevii,carepot fi: 1)deoriginevegetala:a)dinlemn--~celuloza--~celuloidulb)dinbumbac~celuloza--~acetatdecelulozac)arboreledecauciuc-slatex-v+cauciucul drseminte dericin-+--~poliamidae)trestiadezahar-salcoolul~policloruradevinil(PVC)2)deorigineanimala:dinlapte v -dinbranzirealaptelui-dingrasimi3)deorigineminerala:a)dincarbon--~PVC,PSb)dinpetrol--~PE,PP,PS,PVC,...c)dingazenaturale-~PVCd)dincalcar--~PVC,... 1.2.PROCEDEEDEOBTINEREAMATERIALELORTERMOPLASTICE Principalelereactiichimicepentruobtinereamaterialelortermoplasticesunt: y polimerizarea y policondensarea y poliaditiaa)ReactiadepolimerizareEstereactiachimicaprincareinconditiispecialedepresiunesitemperaturamoleculeleaceluiasimonomersantlegateunadecealaltaobtinandu-seunpolimermacromolecular.Exemplu: 0+00000000 MonomerAMonomerAPolimerApolietilenatilena + etilenaFigl.l.ReactiadepolimerizarePrincipalelematerialeleplasticeobtinuteprinreactiadepolimerizareasunt:1.polietilenadejoasadensitate=PejdsauPELD2.polietilenadeinaltadensitate=PiedsauPEHD ======================================================= ==========================2/132  :==============================================================realizatdeing.SorinIlie 3.polipropilena=PP4.policloruradevinil=PVC5.polistirenul=PS6.acrilo-butadien-stiren=ABS7.polimetacrilatuldemetil=PMMA8.polioxiduldemetilen=POM9.politeta-fluor-etilen=PTFE,...Q)ReactiadepolicondensareEstereactiachimicaprincareinconditiispecialedepresiune~itemperaturacapetelemoleculeloramonomeridiferitireactioneazaintreelesiseleagaunuldecelalaltrezultandunpolimer.cromolecular.ixemplu: o + ã 0000000 MonomerAAcidterftalnicPolimerCpolibutilentereftalat .-----------------------------, MonomerBButandiolFig.I.2.SchemareactieidepoliaditiePrincipalelematerialeleplasticeobtinuteprinreactiadepolicondensaresunt:1.polietilentereftalat=PET2.polibutilentereftalat=PBT3.poliamida=PA4.policarbonat=PC5.polisulfura=PSU,...c)ReactiadepoliaditieEstereactiachimicaprincareinconditiispecialedepresiune~itemperaturacapetelemoleculeloraunuimonomer~iaunuipolimerreactioneazaintreelesiseleagaunuldecelalaltrezultandunpolimermacromolecular.Exemplu: ã+ OOOOO-----+OQOQO 00060 PolimerCmacromolecularPoliamidaPolimerBDiaminaMonomerADiacidaFig.l.3.SchemareactieidepoliaditiePrincipalelematerialeplasticeobtinuteprinreactiadepoliaditiesint:1)poliuretanul=PUR2)poliamida=PA =================================================================================3/132  ====================================-::-::- .====================realizatdeing.SorinIlie CAP.2-STRUCTURAINTERNAAMATERIALELORTERMOPLASTICE 2.1.ELEMENTELEPRINCIPALEDINSTRUCTURAINTERNAAMATERIALELORTERMOPLASTICE Elementuleelmaimicdinstructurainternaesteatomulformatdintr-unnuc1eusielectroni.Ex:atomuldehidrogen (H) ® Fig.2.1.SchemaatomuluidehidrogenMoleculaesteunansambludemaimultiatomicarei~ipunincomununulsaumaimultielectroni.Ex:moleculade apa=Hjf): Q Fig.2.2.Schemamoleculeidz apa Moleculadebazadinstructurainternaamaterialelorplasticesenumeste Monomer sieste fermata dinmaimultiatomidecarbon(C)(careforrneazascheletulmoleculei),dehidrogen(H),deoxigen(O),declor(Cl),desiliciu(Si),si altii. Ex:monomeruldeetilena = CH 2 =CH 2 w ã ã Fig.2.3.SchemamonomeruluideetilenaMacromoleculaobtinutaprintr-oinlantuiredemonomeripusicaplacapsenumeste polimer siare 0 forma fibroasadatoritalanturilor depolimericarese impletesc unelecualtele rezultind astfelmoleculegigante.Ex:polietilena= -CH2-CH2-CHrCH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-...~ Fig.2.4.SchemapolimeruluidepolietilenaAtuncicandpolimerulesteobtinutdinexactacelasitipdemonomeracestasenumestehomopolimer.Deexemplu:propilena+propilena--~polipropilenahomopolimer etilena + etilena ------polietilena Proprietati: ./rigiditateridicata ./rezistenta lasocredusa./indicedecurgereredusAtuncicindpolimerulesteobtinutdindoimonomeridiferitiacestasenumestecopolimer.Deexemplu:Propilena+etilena-v-spolipropilenacopolimer ========================================================== =======================4/132
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