Comissão Fertilidade do solo e nutrição de plantas WITH PIG SLURRY - PDF

DIVISÃO 3 - Uso e manejo do solo Comissão Fertilidade do solo e nutrição de plantas ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY Marco André Grohskopf (1), Paulo Cezar Cassol (1)

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DIVISÃO 3 - Uso e manejo do solo Comissão Fertilidade do solo e nutrição de plantas ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY Marco André Grohskopf (1), Paulo Cezar Cassol (1) *, Juliano Corulli Correa (2), Maria Sueli Heberle Mafra (1) and Jonas Panisson (1) (1) Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Solos e Recursos Naturais, Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil. (2) Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brasil. * Corresponding author. ABSTRACT The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox) and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 1 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of, 25, 5, 1, and 2 m 3 ha -1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-n, hexosamine-n, α-amino-n, amide-n, and unidentified-n. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-n content in the -1 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-n when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-n in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-n, ammonium-n, and amide-n. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system. Keywords: manure, N availability, N fractionation. Received for publication on March 5, 214 and approved on September 11, 214. DOI: 1.159/1683rbcs2158 R. Bras. Ci. Solo, 39: , 215 128 Marco André Grohskopf et al. RESUMO: FRAÇÕES DE NITROGÊNIO ORGÂNICO EM LATOSSOLO VERMELHO ADUBADO COM DEJETO SUÍNO A aplicação de dejeto suíno pode influenciar na dinâmica do nitrogênio no solo de forma distinta em comparação à adubação mineral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as diferentes formas de N orgânico em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico e sua relação com a absorção de N pelas culturas, em resposta a 1 anos de aplicação anual de dejeto suíno e adubo mineral. Os tratamentos foram as doses, 25, 5, 1 e 2 m 3 ha -1 de dejeto suíno, além da adubação na forma mineral, organizados em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram determinados os teores de N no tecido vegetal e de N total nas frações hidrolisadas em meio ácido: N-amônio, N-hexosamina, N-α-amino, N-amido e N-não identificado do solo. A aplicação anual de dejeto suíno ou adubo mineral aumentou o teor de N total na camada de -1 cm de profundidade. As principais frações do N orgânico no solo foram N-α-amino, quando utilizado dejeto suíno e N-não identificado no caso do adubo mineral. O dejeto suíno aumentou as frações do N consideradas lábeis, N-α-amino, N-amônio e N-amida. Esse aumento das formas lábeis de N orgânico no solo, pela aplicação de dejeto suíno, possibilita maior absorção de N pelas culturas de milho e aveia em plantio direto. Palavras-chave: esterco, disponibilidade de N, fracionamento de N. INTRODUCTION Although swine raising makes use of a great deal of technology, it has paid little concern to the final destination of waste products, principally to rational use of them as a nutrient source for plants. The importance of this organic fertilizer is evident from the expressive volume generated, because each adult pig produces around 8 L d -1 of slurry (Oliveira, 1993) and, in 211, approximately 37 million pigs were slaughtered in Brazil (IBGE, 213). The demand for utilization of the waste products generated by swine raising will continue to increase because the increase in pork production has been around 1.77 % a year (Brasil, 211). National research thus seeks to generate technological resources that establish a balance between production and environmental quality, based on the principle of sustainability. The use of this waste as a raw material in crop fertilization may result in various benefits, leading to improvements in the chemical and biological properties and physical traits of the soil (Cassol et al., 212), especially in the upper layers, when applied on the soil surface. Nevertheless, there are still few studies that seek to understand the N dynamic in the soil when organic fertilizers are applied, in comparison to mineral fertilizers with soluble sources. It should be noted that little is known about the chemical nature of organic N in Brazilian soils, especially in areas of application of pig slurry, and it is necessary to carry out studies for characterization of the fractions of the element in the soil, especially in regard to the proportions of labile and non-labile forms. Although a greater quantity of N is required for most crops, no precise method is yet available to evaluate its availability in the soil because its dynamic in this environment involves diverse processes, such as sorption, adsorption, leaching, volatilization, nitrification, denitrification, immobilization, and mineralization, which are generally mediated by microorganisms and affected by climatic factors (Aita et al., 26; Lourenzi et al., 213). Moreover, 95 % of the N in the soil is in the organic form. Given the great number of N reactions in the soil, fertilization with mineral fertilizers may provide from 11 to 68 % of the total N used by the plant (Lara Cabezas et al., 2; Giacomini et al., 29), with the other part coming from the organic N of the soil, although the N compounds of the soil may have high or low lability depending on the type of organic chain they are inserted in (Müller et al., 211). The synchronism between the release of N from the organic residues and the demand for N by the plants is fundamental, both from the perspective of yield and of reducing the risk of environmental contamination through volatilization of NH 3, leaching of NO 3, and emission of N 2 O (Giacomini and Aita, 28). Considering the demand for knowledge in regard to the effects of application of organic fertilizers, such as pig slurry, on the formation and accumulation in the soil of compounds containing organic N in recalcitrant and labile forms, the aim of this study was to determine the different fractions of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox) and N uptake by plants in a maizeoat succession under no-till subjected to 1 years of application of increasing rates (up to 2 m 3 ha -1 ) of pig slurry, as compared to mineral fertilizer. R. Bras. Ci. Solo, 39: , 215 ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY 129 MATERIAL AND METHODS A field experiment was carried out in the municipality of Campos Novos, SC, Brazil, in an area with a mean altitude of 863 m, located at the geographic coordinates 51º longitude West and 27º latitude South. The location has a humid mesothermal climate with a mild summer (Cfb), according to the Köppen classification, with annual rainfall of 1,48 mm, relatively welldistributed throughout the year, and mean annual temperature of 16 C. Activities began in October 21 to evaluate the effects of continuous addition of pig slurry on the soil over the years in regard to crop yield, soil chemical, physical, and biological characteristics, and soil quality. Before setting up the experiment, the area was used for commercial crops (maize, soybean, common bean, wheat, and oats) and managed in a no-till system. Soil in the experiment is classified as a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Embrapa, 213) [Typic Hapludox], with basalt as the material of origin and with the chemical characteristics shown in table 1. The soil is highly clayey, with a content of 664 and 71 g kg -1 in the layers evaluated (Table 2). The soil is characterized as oxidic, with a predominance of crystalline forms of iron oxides (goethite and hematite); in the clay fraction, kaolinite predominates, followed by 2:1 type clay minerals with interlayer hydroxy-al polymers; in lower proportions, there are gibbsite and quartz (Almeida et al., 23). The study evaluated results of the 1 th year of carrying out the experiment, composed of the following treatments: pig slurry (PS) at annual rates of (control), 25, 5, 1, and 2 m 3 ha -1, and mineral fertilization (MF). The MF treatment was composed of urea, triple superphosphate, and potassium chloride at annual rates of 13, 44, and 58 kg ha -1 of N, P, and K, respectively, which increased to 17, 57, and 67 kg ha -1 as of 27. These values were defined based on recommendations with a view toward maize grain yield of 8 Mg ha -1 in the first period, and of 11 Mg ha -1 in the second period, according to the manual of the Soil Chemical and Fertility Commission (Tedesco et al., 24). The treatments were applied in plots of m, organized in a randomized block experimental design, with four replications. The treatments were always applied in October of each year, from 15 to 2 days after application of glyphosate herbicide to desiccate the winter crop, and from seven to 12 days before planting maize. The pig slurry and the mineral fertilizer were broadcast on the soil surface over the winter crop residue, the first with the aid of a slurry spreader, and the second, manually. The N of the MF treatment was applied in parcels, with 2 % broadcast on the same day as the other treatments and the rest divided into two topdressing applications, the first at the V8 stage and the second at the beginning of maize tasseling. The slurry used in carrying out the experiment was derived from feeder pigs and was stored with Table 1. Properties of the -2 cm layer of the Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox) used to set up the field experiment. Mean values of four samples composed of 1 subsamples ph(h 2 O) ph(smp) V Al 3+(1) Ca 2+(1) Mg 2+(1) P (2) K (2) Clay TOC % cmol c kg -1 mg kg -1 g kg Determined according to Tedesco et al. (1995). ph(h 2 O): ph in water; ph(smp): ph in SMP solution; TOC: total organic carbon. (1) 1 mol L -1 KCl extractor. (2) P and K: extracted by Mehlich-1. Table 2. Particle size composition in the -5, -1, and 1-2 cm layers of a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox) used for setting up the field experiment Depth Clay Sand Silt cm g kg continuous flow in an outside storage tank for around four months prior to application. The pig slurry applied in the experiment was characterized (Table 3), removing a representative sample for duplicate analysis. Dry matter was determined through drying in a forced air laboratory oven at 65 C. The ph level was determined through reading on a ph meter directly in the PS, and nutrient analyses were made in aliquots from the waste in natura (wet base) and carried out as described by Tedesco et al. (1995). Maize (Zea mays L.) and black oats (Avena strigose L.) were grown each year in succession under the no-till system (NT), except in the summer R. Bras. Ci. Solo, 39: , 215 13 Marco André Grohskopf et al. Table 3. Chemical properties (dry matter - DM; total nitrogen - TN; and total organic carbon - TOC) of the pig slurry applied annually in the field experiment in the period from 21 to 211 in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox) Period (year) ph DM TN TOC kg m -3 1/ / / / / / / / / / Total Mean of 22/23, when black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown instead of maize, and in the winters of 25 and 28, when radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) were grown instead of black oats. In the maize crops, a single hybrid cultivar was used at a density of seven plants m -2, with a spacing of.6 m between rows. A common cultivar was used for black oats at a density of 6 kg ha -1 of seeds, and the cultivar IPR-116 for radish at a density of 1 kg ha -1 of seeds, at a row spacing of.2 m for both crops. The cultivar Empasc 21 was used for black beans at a density of 2 plants m -2. Maize was generally planted in the first week of November, whereas the winter crops were always planted in the first half of the month of June each year. All the crops were planted in the no-till system, with a planter composed of a front cutting disk and furrower with a double disk opener. Maize grain yield was determined through manual harvest and mechanical threshing of the ears produced in the useful area ( m) of the plots. For the winter crops, biomass production was evaluated in the useful area of the plots, collecting three subsamples per plot demarcated in a.25 m 2. Soil sampling was carried out in August 21, with collection from the following layers: -2.5, 2.5-5, 5-1, 1-2, 2-3, and 3-4 cm depth. The samples were composed of seven subsamples collected at random points from the diagonal line of the plots, using a soil cylindrical auger. After collection, the soil was placed to dry in a forced air circulation oven at 65 C and was then ground, sieved in a 2. mm screen, and stored in polyethylene containers. Total nitrogen (TN) contents in the soil and in the plant leaves were determined according to methods described by Tedesco et al. (1995). For leaf sampling, the center third of 3 leaves located below and opposite the ear in the maize tasseling stage, and 5 flag leaves from the oat plants in the initial flowering stage of the crop were collected in each experimental plot (Tedesco et al., 24). Fractionation of the organic forms of N was based on the extraction and quantification of the N compounds released by acid hydrolysis, based on the protein degradation technique described by Yonebayashi and Hattori (198) and modified by Camargo et al. (28). Two soil samples containing around 1 mg of organic N received three drops of octanol and were subjected to hydrolysis, one with 2 ml of 6. mol L -1 HCl for a 24 h period, and the other with 2 ml of 1. mol L -1 HCl for 3 h, both with heating to 11 C and under reflux in a condenser. The N hydrolyzed fractions, NH + 4-N, hexosamine-n, and α-amino-n were determined in the neuter hydrolyzed solution of the first sample, while the amide-n fraction was determined in the second. After the hydrolysis procedure, the material was filtered in a slow filter, collecting 6 ml of the hydrolyzed liquid, and this was neutralized to ph 6.5 with NaOH, and the volume was then completed to 1 ml with distilled water. For hydrolyzed-n, 5 ml from the first sample was transferred to digestion tubes where it remained at 18 C for 2 min, followed by 33 C for 2 h or until reaching a greenish-tan color. After cooling, 2 ml of distilled water and 5 ml of 1 mol L -1 NaOH were added and distillation began, collecting the ammonia in boric acid indicator solution, and then titration with.25 mol L 1 H 2 SO 4. For determination of NH + 4-N, 1 ml from the first sample was transferred to distillation flasks, together with 7 mg of calcined MgO, and then distillation and titration as described above. For determination of amide-n, 1 ml of the second sample was transferred to distillation flasks, together with 7 mg of calcined MgO, and then distillation and titration as described above. The amide-n fraction was calculated by subtracting the value of mineral NH + 4-N determined in this distillation, composed of mineral NH + 4-N + amide-n. The value of mineral NH + 4-N in solution and adhering to the negative charges of the soil was determined through extraction with 1. mol L -1 KCl according to the method described by Tedesco et al. (1995) for soil analysis. For the hexosamine-n fraction, 1 ml of the first sample was transferred to distillation flasks, together with 1 ml of a phosphate-borate buffer solution with ph of 11.2, followed by distillation and titration as described above. From this procedure, hexosamine-n + NH + 4-N was obtained, and hexosamine-n was calculated by subtraction of the NH + 4-N fraction determined in the second step. R. Bras. Ci. Solo, 39: , 215 w ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY 131 For determination of α-amino-n, 5 ml of the second sample was transferred to distillation flasks, with the addition of 1 ml of.5 mol L -1 NaOH, followed by heating in a water bath at a temperature of 1 C until reducing the volume to 2 to 3 ml. After the flask was cooled, 5 mg of citric acid and 1 mg of ninhydrin was added, heating the extract in a water bath once more for 1 more min. After this period, the flask was shaken with a circular movement for a few seconds without removing it from the water bath, where it remained for 1 more min. After cooling, 1 ml of phosphateborate buffer solution and 1. ml of 5 mol L -1 NaOH was added, and then the distillation and titration process described above was carried out. The unidentified-n is estimated by subtraction of the sum of the hydrolyzed forms of organic N from the value of hydrolyzed-n determined in the first step, in which unidentified-n = hydrolyzed-n - (NH + 4-N + amide-n + hexosamine-n + α-amino-n). The results were subjected to analysis of variance by the F test, considering a randomized block design, with evaluation of the effect of the treatments and comparison of mean values by the Duncan test (p .5) and regression analysis for the effect of the application rate of pig slurry on the content of the organic N fractions of the soil and uptake of these forms of N by plants. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Pig slurry and mineral fertilization influenced the total content and the forms of N in the soil only up to the 1 cm depth soil layer, without changes in the deeper layers up to 4 cm. The TN content accumulated in the soil increased with the application rates of pig slurry (PS); however, the application rate of 1 m 3 ha -1 was similar to those of 5 and 2 m 3 ha -1, but, in this case, only in the 5-1 cm layer (Table 4). These results indicate that the PS at rates greater than 1 m 3 ha -1 promotes N accumulation in the soil, especially in the surface layer, which may also result in greater losses through volatilization of ammonia, N 2 O, and N 2, leaching by N-NO 3 in the soil profile, and surface runoff of the ammonia, nitrate, amide, and organic forms. At the rates of 25 and 5 m 3 ha -1 of PS, TN contents similar to mineral fertilizer (MF) may be seen (Table 4). The greater TN contents in the soil exhibited at the rates of 1 and 2 m 3 ha -1 of PS are explainable by the large addition of the nutrient in these treatments in carrying out the experiment, with a total of 66 and 1,32 kg ha -1 of TN in 29, and of 39 and 78 kg ha -1 in 21, respectively, in contrast with the application of 17 kg ha -1 of mineral N in the form of urea each year. It is important to note that mineralization of organic N of the soil occurs at a variable rate as a result of the edaphic and climatic characteristics, usage and management practices, type of soil, and quality of the crop or organic residue (Aita et al., 26; Lourenzi et al., 213; Schirmann et al., 213). New approaches in regard to organic N have characterized different fractions of this nutrient in the soil, such as recalcitrant organic N and labile organic N, which have an effect on the rate of mineralization (Müller et al., 211; Paungfoo-Lonhienne et al., 212). The proportion of total hydrolyzed-n in relation to the accumulated TN of the soil in the different treatments ranged from 69 to 76 % Table 4. Total nitrogen content (TN) in layers up to 4 cm in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox), subjected to 1 years of annual fertilization with mineral fertilizer (MF) and pig slurry (PS) at the rates of (control), 25, 5, 1, and 2 m 3 ha -1 in a no-till system. Mean values of four replications Depth MF Control PS 25 PS 5 PS 1 PS 2 cm g kg Ab 3.2 Ac 3.8 Ab 4.1 Ab 4.6 Aa 4.5 Aa Bbc 2.8 Bd 3. Bcd 3.5 Bb 3.9 Ba 3.9 Ba Cbc 2.2 Cd 2.3 Ccd 2.4 Cbc
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