CnC 5Axis Manufacturing of Gears. using V 4.0. An Overview. Involute Simulation Softwares Inc., Québec, Canada - PDF

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CnC 5Axis Manufacturing of Gears using An Overview V 4.0 Involute Simulation Softwares Inc., Québec, Canada November 2015 Contents Introduction.. 3 Vector Simulation HyGEARS : The Vector Model..

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CnC 5Axis Manufacturing of Gears using An Overview V 4.0 Involute Simulation Softwares Inc., Québec, Canada November 2015 Contents Introduction.. 3 Vector Simulation HyGEARS : The Vector Model.. 5 Face Milling and Face Hobbing.. 7 Calibration... 8 Supported Gear Types Axis CnC Post-Processor Overview.. 13 Architectures Main Features. 18 Conversion Machines.. 20 Tools.. 21 Display. 24 Cycles Tool Reference Point Part Reference Point Metrics. 46 Cycling Time. 47 Stock. 48 Operations Processes Output Sample result Sample result Sample result Summary Introduction Since its introduction in 1994, HyGEARS has been in constant evolution. HyGEARS V 4.0 now covers all major gear types found in the gear industry. Its vector simulation model has been extensively tested and confirmed over the years. The integrated 5Axis CnC Post-Processor generates, from the exact tooth definition without any interpolation, the CnC machine part programs needed to manufacture every gear type of the simulation model on any 5Axis CnC machine available on the market: the resulting tooth flank topography is the same whether Face Mill, CoSIMT, End Mill or Ball Mill tools are used. In one single stand alone software, HyGEARS allows : to design gear sets: face milled spiral-bevel, hypoid, straight bevel, Cyclo-Palloid spiral-bevel gears, Coniflex, spur, helical, Beveloid, herringbone and Face gears; to analyze the kinematics, unloaded and loaded: TE, Contact Pattern, LTCA, FFT, Bending and Contact stresses, and more, are all but one click away; to develop and optimize the kinematic characteristics of gear pairs, through specialized functions, in order to improve load carrying capacity and smoothness of operation; to assess the manufacturing quality through an export/import interface to common CMMs; to cut gears on conventional and 5 Axis CnC machines using Face Mill, Dish type cutter (for Coniflex gears), Conical Side Milling Tool (or CoSIMT, such as made by Ingersoll Rand, Sandvik, PTR-TEC), End Mill and Ball Mill tools; to use an integrated Closed Loop, i.e. seamless use of CMM output to determine machine corrections such that manufactured parts are within set tolerances when compared to the design. Read on for a brief overview of HyGEARS. 3 HyGEARS is built on Vector Simulation In Vector Simulation, a theoretical gear generator is simulated by translations and rotations applied to reference frames that determine the relations between cutting tool and machine. 3: A Numerical machine is created from the Vector Model yn Tooth Trace Work zn g Qn en On Γn ϕsn xn xj Z1 L1 W2 Z2 L2 T Offset X1 X3 X2 αc D1 D3 κ D 3 M ψ W3 Z3 Cutter Blade S 1: The reference machine is discretized in a series of ref. frames Bn Z1 D 2 D2 D 2 D1 τ D 3 Machine Plane 4: A Numerical gear set is created with the Numerical machine. L1 D1 Cutter Z2 Z3 D2 D3 2: The Vector Model uses the ref. frames of the discretized machine Sliding base X2 X1 α3 M γ m Machine Plane X3 Work Machine center to back 4 HyGEARS The Vector Model The coordinates and normal vectors at any point on the tooth flanks are obtained by applying machine specific rotations and translations to the cutter definition. Point on tooth flank: Z1 L1 W2 Z2 L2 T Tooth Trace Offset X1 X3 X2 αc D1 D3 κ D 3 Work M ψ W3 Z3 Cutter Blade S D 2 D2 D1 τ X = D τ 3 k 1 RRRRRR L 1 3 DDDD γ m 2 θ 3 3 Z1 D 2 D 3 Machine Plane Normal on tooth flank: L1 D1 Cutter Z2 Z3 D2 D3 Sliding base X2 X1 α3 M γ m Machine N x = N τ 3 k 1 L 1 3 γ m 2 θ 3 3 Work X3 Machine center to back 5 HyGEARS The Vector Model Higher order changes, up to the 6 th order, can be superimposed to the tool and work piece movements in order to achieve specific kinematic behavior. Example 1) Modified Roll higher order changes: Example 2) Helical Motion higher order changes: where: L 1m : modified cradle angle α 3 : work piece roll angle R r : ratio of roll, cradle to work piece C r : cradle ref. position 2C: 2 nd Order parameter (Gleason notation) 6D: 3 rd Order parameter 24E: 4 th Order parameter 120F: 5 th Order parameter 720G: 6 th Order parameter where: X bm : modified sliding base α 3 : work piece roll angle R r : ratio of roll, cradle to work piece C r : cradle ref. position 1 st : 1 st Order parameter 2 nd : 2 nd Order parameter 3 rd : 3 rd Order parameter 4 th : 4 th Order parameter 5 th : 5 th Order parameter 6 th : 6 th Order parameter 6 HyGEARS Face Milling and Face Hobbing Both the Face Milling and Face Hobbing processes are supported for Spiral Bevel gears. Face Milling (single indexing) Face Hobbing (continuous indexing) 7 HyGEARS Calibration Over the years, HyGEARS has been extensively calibrated against Gleason s CAGE and Klingelnberg s KIMoS softwares for Contact Pattern and Transmission Error, CMM output, Corrective Machine Settings (Closed Loop), LTCA Contact Stresses, etc. Some important milestones: : Machine Calibration (Gleason and Yutaka machines) 1994: Closed Loop 1 st Order 1995: Closed Loop 2 nd Order 1996: Experimental TE 1997: Experimental LTCA 1998: Fillet Stress (against FEA) 2001: Contact Stress (against Gleason) 2004: Bending and Contact Stress Face Hobbing (against Gleason) 2006: Lapping Prediction (with AAM) 2011: First 5Axis CnC Interface Consistently equivalent results are obtained, as is shown in the following pages. 8 HyGEARS Calibration Contact Pattern Comparison: Gleason TCA vs HyGEARS TCA Drive Side 13x24 Face Milled Spiral Bevel gear set Coast Side Gleason HyGEARS 9 HyGEARS Calibration Tooth Flank Topography Comparison: Gleason and Klingelnberg vs HyGEARS 8x39 Face Milled Spiral Bevel gear set: comparing Nominals using the same machine settings HyGEARS vs. Gleason Nominal The colored lines are the Gleason nominal; HyGEARS is in black Note the deviation at fillet, Heel-OB HyGEARS vs. KIMoS Nominal The colored lines are the KIMoS nominal; HyGEARS is in black No deviation here! 10 HyGEARS Calibration Tooth Flank Topography Comparison: Gleason and Klingelnberg vs HyGEARS 8x39 Face Hobbed Hypoid gear set: comparing Nominals using the same machine settings The colored lines are the Gleason nominal; HyGEARS is in black. HyGEARS vs. Gleason - Pinion Typical differences are less than 1 µm The colored lines are the Gleason nominal; HyGEARS is in black. HyGEARS vs. Gleason - Gear 11 HyGEARS Supported Gear Types The most popular gear types are supported by HyGEARS. All can be cut on any CnC machine. Spur/Helical Herringbone Spiral Bevel: Face Milled, Face Hobbed, Cyclo-Palloid Hypoids, both conventional and High Ratio (HRH) Straight Bevels Coniflex ( The Gleason Works) Beveloid Face Gears Spiral Bevel Face Clutches Hypoid Helical Face Spiral-Bevel/Hypoid cutting processes: Fixed Setting (i.e. the old 5 cut system); Non Generated (i.e. Formate ) Spread Blade Modified Roll Duplex Helical Face Hobbed Cyclo-Palloid Herringbone 12 Overview: HyGEARS integrates a Post-Processor that can generate CnC part programs to cut any HyGEARS supported gear type on any 3, 4 and 5 Axis CnC machine using any tool. The part programs, based on the exact tooth definition, need no further user intervention and can be uploaded directly to any 3, 4 and 5Axis CnC machine. Tool and machine movements are displayed in 3D, can be rotated in any direction for better viewing, and can be animated or single stepped to allow visualization and collision detection throughout the tool path. The use of the Post-processor is easy, intuitive, and reflects the actual work done on the shop floor. The Post-processor directly supports machine architectures of BA, BC, AB and AC types, where : the A axis rotates about the X axis the B axis rotates about the Y axis the C axis rotates about the Z axis Other architectures are supported through workpiece coordinates in Traori/TCP/TCPM/TCPC mode Specific machines can be created and saved for later use: the translation and rotation axes can be renamed, and their positive direction can be inverted. Typical tools include Face Milling, Coniflex dish, CoSIMT (i.e. Conical Side Milling Tool), End Mill and Ball Mill cutters. A tool box for each tool type can be created by the users to suit their needs. 13 A-C machine architecture: X, Y, Z translations (on the tool and/or work piece) Work tilt about X axis: angle A Rotation about work axis: angle C Z Y X C A 14 A-B machine architecture: X, Y, Z translations (on the tool and/or work piece) Work tilt about Y axis: angle B Rotation about work axis: angle A Z X Y B A 15 B-C machine architecture: X, Y, Z translations (on the tool and/or work piece) Work tilt about Y axis: angle B Rotation about work axis: angle C X B Y Z C 16 B-A machine architecture: X, Y, Z translations (on the tool and/or work piece) Tool swivel about X axis: angle A Tool tilt about Y axis: angle B Z Y B X A 17 Main features of the Post-Processor: supports AB, AC, BA and BC architecture machines; supports GCodes, Heidenhain, Siemens, Okuma and Fanuc controllers; supports Traori (Siemens), TCPM (Heidenhain), TCPC (Okuma) and TCP (Fanuc); allows creation of specific 3, 4 and 5Axis machines from the 4 basic architectures; specific machines can be fully customized by the user to reproduce exactly the machine implementation; offers 10 pre-defined cutting cycles for CoSIMT, End Mill and Ball Mill tools; and 4 pre-defined cutting cycles for Face Mill tools (single roll/double roll); CoSIMT cutting edges can be linear or circular (to cut a Face Gear for example); allows single pass roughing / multi-pass semi-finishing and finishing for CoSIMT, End Mill and Ball Mill tools; allows the generation of a protuberance in the fillet; the tool path is easily customized by the user in order to optimize both cycle time and product quality; allows automated / single stepping animation of the tool and work piece through the cutting cycle; allows the display of the supporting arbor and the machine head to detect potential collisions; allows the creation of Operations which define a given task; Operations can be re-used on different gears; allows the creation of Processes which are a series of Operations in a specific order; Processes can thus generate a complete program sequence including roughing and semi-finishing of the tooth flank and fillet using different tools. Part Programs: can be in CSV (comma separated values) format for import in Excel; can include or exclude comments describing the logic and operations performed; can be for Face Milling cutters (spiral bevel gears), Dish type cutters (Coniflex - The Gleason Works - gears), CoSIMT (such as made by Ingersoll Rand, Sandvik, PTR-TEC), End Mill, Ball Mill cutters. 18 Conversion: To generate a part program, HyGEARS converts the movements of the conventional cutter (in a conventional machine) into movements of a Face Mill, Coniflex dish, CoSIMT, End Mill or a Ball Mill tool in a 5Axis CnC machine where: the relative orientation between the ref. frames of the CnC machine tool and the conventional cutter are maintained. the relative position of the ref. frames of the conventional cutter and the work piece are maintained. The figure to the right shows a Face Mill cutter (pink) and a CoSIMT (green) with coincident cutting edges. Photo courtesy of PTR-TEC.de The HyGEARS Post Processor tracks the movements of the Face Mill cutter in the conventional machine and converts them to CoSIMT movements in a 5Axis CnC machine. The same approach is applied to all tools and gear types. 19 Machines: 4 basic CnC machine architectures are available: BC, AC, AB and BA (bottom left figure); plus 3 and 4 Axis machines. Any specific machine can be derived from the basic types using the HyGEARS machine editor (bottom right figure). Machine Selection Machine Editor 20 Tools: HyGEARS offers 6 different tools: Face Mill cutter (spiral bevel, Zerol, hypoid gears) Dish cutter (Coniflex gears) CoSIMT (all gear types) End Mill (all gear types) Ball Mill (all gear types) Probe (CMM) (all gear types; for measurement) Photos courtesy of PTR-TEC.de 21 Tools: Each tool type is described in a dedicated data page where the defining dimensions are entered by the user. The 30 character-long tool name is user defined. The tools can be saved for re-use and are specific to users, i.e. they are not distributed with HyGEARS. Hence, proprietary information remains proprietary. Definition of an 8mm Bull Nose 22 Tools: CoSIMT tools (or Conical Side Milling Tool; same as the Sandvik InvoMill) can have circular cutting edges which allow the generation of tooth profiles with concave profile curvature, such as Face Gears. Definition of a CoSIMT Spherical Cutting Edge 23 Display: Several options allow selective information display. These include: the Machine Head, the Work Arbor and support, the Target Grid, where the target coordinates are displayed in wire frame mesh, the Target Volume which will be removed by the selected operation, the Tool Path. Display of the Target Grid (beige) and Volume (light blue) 24 Display: Example of Tool Holder and Work Arbor with CoSIMT and 1.2 mm module hypoid pinion. Display of the Arbor and Tool Holder 25 Display: Detection of Gouging interference (tool back side contact with opposite tooth flank): HyGEARS can determine, and display where, if any Gouging occurs such as to alert the user of potential profile mutilation; valid for CoSIMT, End Mill, Ball Mill tools. Current cutting point Display of Gouging points with Pink crosses 26 Cycles: Cutting cycles can be extensively tailored to user preferences, depending on tool choice. Cycle Options for CoSIMT, End Mill and Ball Mill tools Stock feed along the face width (#Facewidth Pts) and tooth depth (#Steps) When cutting starts and ends (Start / End) Tool retraction at end of cycle (Retract Factor, based on Heel tooth depth) Whether the tooth description is with constant roll angles or radius (Constant D-Radius) Whether the contact point moves, or does not move, along the tool s cutting edge (Moving Contact Pt) Roughing and Finishing cycles Toe and Heel clearances Tip, Toe and Heel chamfering Indexing sequence in order to spread tool wear and thermal load over non sequential teeth (Skip#). 27 Cycles: HyGEARS offers up to 10 different cutting cycles for CoSIMT, End Mill and Ball Mill tools, 4 cycles for Face Mill cutters and 1 cycle for the Coniflex dish cutter. Cycles for Face Mill cutters Cycles for CoSIMT, End Mill and Ball Mill tools 28 Cycles: Finishing cycles for CoSIMT, End Mill and Ball Mill tools. Fillet/Root, Tooth Flank, toe, Heel and Tip Chamfer (Deburring) are different operations; They can be cut Slot by Slot or Flank by Flank, depending on machine selection, work size, and how much travel is required by the machine or tool between tooth flanks; Finishing cycles need not be the same on both tooth flanks. Finishing Cycles for CoSIMT, End Mill and Ball Mill tools 29 Cycles: Roughing cycles for End Mill and Ball Mill tools. Roughing Cycles for End Mill and Ball Mill tools Fillet/Root and Tooth Flank are different operations; They can be cut Slot by Slot or Flank by Flank, depending on machine selection, work size, and how much travel is required by the machine or tool between tooth flanks; Roughing cycles need not be the same on both tooth flanks; Center Slot cuts a through in the center of the gap; MultiPass is a Slot by Slot operation; it makes an even number of passes per Step, based on slot width and tool diameter; the number of passes is calculated at each Step; allows greater tool feeds over Center Slot because the tool is never captive in a through. 30 Cycles: Roughing cycles for CoSIMT tools. Roughing Cycles for CoSIMT tools Fillet/Root and Tooth Flank are different operations; They can be cut Slot by Slot or Flank by Flank, depending on machine selection, work size, and how much travel is required by the machine or tool between tooth flanks; Roughing cycles need not be the same on both tooth flanks; Center Slot cuts a through in the center of the gap; MultiPass is a Slot by Slot operation; it makes an even number of passes per Step, based on slot width and tool diameter, the number of passes is calculated at each Step; allows greater tool feeds when compared to Center Slot; For Fillet roughing, only Center Slot is available; 31 Cycles: Face Mill Cutter The HyGEARS 5 Axis CnC Post-Processor can be Single Roll/Double Roll; Double Roll plunges the cutter to full depth between the start and end of the 1 st roll, and then generates full depth on the 2 nd roll; can be Toe to Heel or Heel to Toe; the use of Toe/Heel clearances allows progressive cutter entry/retract for better tool life (see the Target Volume in light blue below); the Indexing Sequence allows spreading tool wear and thermal load over non-consecutive tooth slots. Cycles for Face Mill cutters 32 Cycles: Face Mill Cutter The HyGEARS 5 Axis CnC Post-Processor the Face Mill cutter used on the 5Axis CnC machine can be defined and saved; cutter Diameter, Blade angles, Edge Radii, and Point Width are those described in the Summary Editor (see below). Face Mill cutter definition 33 Cycles: CoSIMT, End Mill, Ball Mill CoSIMT tools can rough tooth flanks and fillet; CoSIMT, End Mill and Ball Mill tools can finish tooth flanks; Bull Nose End Mill and Ball Mill tools can finish the fillet, and a protuberance can be imposed in the form of negative Stock; End Mill can Chamfer (i.e. deburring) tooth Tip; Positive and Negative stock can be used; Toe and Heel clearances can be imposed; The Indexing Sequence can be selected. Cycles for CoSIMT, End Mill and Ball Mill tools 34 Cycles: Example: End Mill tool, Toe-Heel-Toe (IB-Side) / Heel-Toe-Heel (OB-Side) Cutting cycles can be different for each tooth flank (IB-OB, Left-Right); a cutting cycle may start on the IB and finish on the OB (Left-Right for non spiral-bevels); for example, with the selections made in the left figure, given the IB cycle ends at Heel, unless otherwise dictated it could make sense to start the OB cycle at Heel to reduce cycle time (the tool path is the red line in the figure below). End Mill cycles 35 Cycles: Example: tapered End Mill tool, IB-OB O-Shaped / OB-IB O-Shaped only one starting flank can be selected, the other being slave; for IB-OB, the cutting cycle takes a pass along the face width on the IB and switches to the OB for return; the cycle then switches back to the IB and takes one step depth wise before starting over again; can be a real time saver when used with a Tapered End Mill or a CoSIMT. IB-OB O-Shaped cycle 36 Cycles: Example: CoSIMT tool, Rock-Me (Babe) the cycle starts at IB Toe-Tip, generates depth wise to the Fillet, switches to the OB and generates from Fillet to Tip, advances along the OB face width, generates depth wise along the OB side to the Fillet, switches to the IB and generates till Tip, advances along the IB face width, and starts over until Heel is reached; this process is well suited to CoSIMT and finishing in one operation. Tool Path Rock Me (babe) cycle 37 Cycles: Example: End Mill tool, Fillet Fillet finishing is integral to tooth flank finishing when using a Face Mill or CoSIMT tool since the tool sweeping movement generates the fillet; Fillet finishing can be done in a distinct operation when using an End Mill or Ball Mill tool; negative Stock can be imposed to produce a protuberance; the tool can be tilted away from the tooth to avoid interference; Fillet finishing uses the same cycles as for Flank finishing (except Rock Me (babe)). Fillet cycles 38 Tool Reference Point: the Tool Length to be entered in the 5Axis machine controller depends on the location of the Tool Center Point (TCP), as follows. CoSIMT : TCP mid P.Width) Face Mill Cutter: TCP (in the plane of blade tips) 39 Tool Reference Point: End Mill / Ball Mill tools: reference can be given at TCP or Tip. Ball Mill : TCP and Tip End Mill: TCP and Tip 40 Tool Reference Point: Coniflex dish type cutter: TCP. Coniflex Dish Reference Point 41 Part Reference Point: The reference point on the work piece changes with geometry
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