CD07 Lock Pouncett CAA2006 - Αντίγραφο

CD07 Lock Pouncett CAA2006 - Αντίγραφο

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  621990, the work of Symonds (1999; Symonds and Ling 2002) shows how NA can be incorporated into interesting contemporary attempts to integrate social theory and human  perceptions of space with detailed archaeological evidence.Symonds is interested in the socio-economic landscapes of 10 th  century Lincolnshire, England, the emergence of towns and the impact of Scandinavian immigration. In an attempt to expand the existing archaeological focus on towns themselves and place them within a landscape set-ting, she uses production centers, market centers and a network of routeways that connect them, which comprises roads and rivers of various sorts. The emphasis is on the social and economic aspects of movement, so for example, the switch from a river to a road will involve impedance in the form of time to unload and load goods. The analysis incorporates detailed archaeological data recovered through surface survey and previous excavations so that the source and destinations of pottery can be modeled together with the direction and intensity of travel. Symonds develops a series of innovative NA-based approaches to model ancient per-ceptions of distance and travel based on cognitive mapping and differences between Euclidean distance and transpor-tation distance. The results assess the differing importance of roads and rivers in different areas of the region for the transportation of pottery and, overall, demonstrate how for-mal NA methodology can be integrated with archaeological interests in social theory. This session in CAA, and this group of published papers, is to build on this early work and to show that NA has con-siderable potential for aspects of archaeology that involve the movement of people and/or things along pre-dened networks or along denable networks. We are not the rst to acknowledge this potential, as do the two most recent textbooks on archaeology and GIS. Wheatley and Gillings (2002:135) give a brief overview while Conolly and Lake (2006, chapter 11) go into more technical detail and pro-vide a range of archaeological examples based on different questions asked of networks. It could be argued that there has been little advance in the underlying NA functionality  provided within commercial GIS software since the rst  published archaeological applications of 1990, and that any advances need to be in the theoretical framework driving the work as Symonds has demonstrated, the questions being asked, and in interpreting the social relationships being modeled. The four papers that follow attempt to build on this advance. Both Isaksen and Earle use the same eld-based  project as a vehicle for NA, the Urban Connectivity in Iron Age and Roman Southern Spain Project. The two are com- plementary and should be read together. Earle outlines a series of methodological and theoretical issues to be consid-ered by anyone using the technology and describes different sorts of social networks at different scales of connection. These include connectedness based on movement, visibil- ity, trade through artifacts and social inuences. Isaksen focuses on NA applied to transport and communication routes in the region in order to better understand the rela-tionship between the location and the political/economic signicance of sites. The results indicate strong transport-inuenced spatial patterning and the concluding section of ow in either direction. It is not difcult to see how a com -  plex model of an agent’s behavior within a network can be established through the well-dened NA logic and series of algorithms provided with modern commercial GIS software (see, for example, ESRI 2006). As with GIS generally, this, of course, is not aimed at an archaeological market. Typical  NA applications are concerned with nding a “best route”  based on dened impedances of time and/or distance for emergency services reaching a disaster scene, or the loca-tion of a new supermarket in relation to its customer base and access to transport networks, for example. The chal-lenge for archaeology is to adapt this formal NA logic to suit the social and cultural relationships and interactions inher-ent within archaeological data and analysis, and this chal-lenge was faced full-on at a very early stage of GIS usage in archaeology. The importance of  Interpreting Space  (Allen et al. 1990) in bringing GIS to an archaeological audience has been sug-gested above and within this publication much of the func-tionality of NA was recognized and used in two papers. Allen (1990) investigated the trading links and economic relationships between Native Americans and European set-tlers in the Great Lakes area between AD 1550 and 1750. The trade was water-bourn so the hydrology map of New York State formed the physical network through which the ow of goods passed. The development of the trading net - work was based on the identication of native sites and the  phased establishment of European trading posts and forts assigned to an early period in the early 1600s and a later  period of the rst half of the 18 th  century, thus giving a three- period chronology. Flow through the network was modeled  based on demand for goods and the carrying capacities of different trading centers with the results showing the expan-sion of the network through the periods, thus “a spatial representation of trading relationships.” In a paper with a similar avor, Zubrow (1990) was interested in the spread of European populations through New York State between the years 1608 and 1810 together with their interaction with indigenous populations. Again the hydrological network forms the basis for movement and six different forms of ini-tialization and subsequent growth patterns are modeled and tested against the locations of 83 known early settlements. This is based on achieving a balance between the demand for migration and the resistance against it, and results in a series of maps showing possible patterns of expansion. Since 1990, the archaeological interest in NA has been somewhat fragmented. It is important here not to confuse this with the considerable interest shown in trying to estab-lish “communications networks” through the use of least-cost-paths and cost surfaces. Bommelje and Doorn (1996), for example, with ancient routes in central Greece, Madry and Rakos (1996), who generated roads and compared them with known Iron Age and Roman roads in Burgundy, France, and Kantner (2004), who reconstructed the 9 th  cen-tury AD Chaco Anasazi road network in southwestern USA. This cell-based approach using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), may produce a resulting network that could be vec-torized and used in NA, but it is not what we are primarily interested in here. Here the focus is on analyzing known networks and although there have been few examples since
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