ASTM D6822-02 (Metodo de Prueba Estandar Para Densidad, Densidad Relativa y Gravedad API de Petroleo Crudo y Productos Liquidos Del Petroleo Por El Metodo Del Termohidrómetro) | Thermometer | Density


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  Designation: D6822 – 02 (Reapproved 2008)Designation: Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 9.3 Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of CrudePetroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products byThermohydrometer Method 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D6822; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon ( ´ ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. 1. Scope 1.1 This test method covers the determination, using a glassthermohydrometer, of the density, relative density (specificgravity), or API gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petro-leum products with Reid vapor pressures of 101.325 kPa(14.696 psi) or less. Values are determined at existing tempera-tures and corrected to 15°C or 60°F by means of internationalstandard tables.1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch pound-unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in nonconformancewith the standard.1.3  This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1  ASTM Standards: 2 D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (SpecificGravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and LiquidPetroleum Products by Hydrometer MethodD6300 Practice for Determination of Precision and BiasData for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products andLubricantsE100 Specification for ASTM Hydrometers2.2  API Standards: 3  MPMS   Chapter 9.1 Hydrometer Test Method for Density,Relative Density (Specific Gravity) or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products (ASTMTest Method D1298)  MPMS   Chapter 11.1 Temperature and Pressure VolumeCorrection Factors for Generalized Crude Oils, RefinedProducts, and Lubricating Oils2.3  ASTM Adjuncts: Adjunct to D1250, Guide for Use of the Petroleum Measure-ment Tables (API  MPMS   Chapter 11.1) 4 3. Terminology 3.1  Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 3.1.1  API gravity (°API) ,  n —a special function of relativedensity 60/60°F, represented by: °API  5  [141.5 /   ~ relative density 60/60°F !#  2  131.5 (1)  Discussion —No statement of reference temperatureis required, as 60°F is included in the definition.3.1.2  density ,  n —the mass of liquid per unit volume at 15°Cand 101.325 kPa with the standard unit of measurement beingkilograms per cubic metre (kg/m 3 ).  Discussion —Other reference temperatures, such as20°C may be used for some products or in some locations. Lesspreferred units of measurement; for example, kg/Lor g/mL, arestill in use. 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D02 onPetroleum Products and Lubricants and the API Committee on Petroleum Measure-ment, and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D02.02.09 on DensityDetermination (API MPMS Chapter 9.0).Current edition approved Feb. 1, 2008. Published April 2008. Originallyapproved in 2002. Last previous edition approved in 2002 as D6822-02. DOI:10.1520/D6822-02R08. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at For  Annual Book of ASTM Standards  volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website. 3 Available from American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L. St., NW, Wash-ington, DC 20005-4070, 4 Available from ASTM International Headquarters. Order Adjunct No.ADJD1250CD. Original adjunct produced in 2004. 1   Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);  Copyright (c) ASTM International. 100 Barr Harbor Dr. PO Box C-700, West Conshohocken, PA. USA  3.1.3  observed values ,  n —hydrometer readings observed ata temperature other than the defined reference temperature.  Discussion —These values are only hydrometerreadings and not density, relative density, or API gravity at thetemperature.3.1.4  relative density ,  n —the ratio of the mass of a givenvolume of liquid at a specific temperature to the mass of anequal volume of pure water at the same or different tempera-ture. Both reference temperatures shall be explicitly stated.  Discussion —Common reference temperatures in-clude 15/15°C, 60/60°F, 20/20°C, and 20/4°C. The historicterm specific gravity may still be found.3.1.5  thermohydrometer  ,  n —a glass hydrometer with aself-contained thermometer. 4. Summary of Test Method 4.1 The density or API gravity, after temperature equilib-rium has been reached, is read by observing the freely floatingthermohydrometer and noting the graduation nearest to theapparent intersection of the horizontal plane surface of theliquid with the vertical scale of the hydrometer after tempera-ture equilibrium has been reached. The observed thermohy-drometer reading is reduced to the reference temperature valueby means of the Petroleum Measurement Tables (the appropri-ate adjunct to Guide /API  MPMS   Chapter 11.1) and observedtemperature from the enclosed thermometer. 5. Significance and Use 5.1 Density and API gravity are used in custody transferquantity calculations and to satisfy transportation, storage, andregulatory requirements. Accurate determination of density orAPI gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petroleum productsis necessary for the conversion of measured volumes tovolumes at the standard temperatures of 15°C or 60°F.5.2 Density andAPI gravity are also factors that indicate thequality of crude petroleum. Crude petroleum prices are fre-quently posted against values in kg/m 3 or in degrees API.However, this property of petroleum is an uncertain indicationof its quality unless correlated with other properties.5.3  Field of Application —Because the thermohydrometerincorporates both the hydrometer and thermometer in onedevice, it is more applicable in field operations for determiningdensity or API gravity of crude petroleum and other liquidpetroleum products. The procedure is convenient for gatheringmain trunk pipelines and other field applications where limitedlaboratory facilities are available. The thermohydrometermethod may have limitations in some petroleum densitydeterminations. When this is the case, other methods such asTest Method D1298 (API  MPMS   Chapter 9.1) may be used.5.4 This test method is suitable for determining the density,relative density, or API gravity of low viscosity transparent oropaque liquids, or both. This test method, when used foropaque liquids, requires the use of a meniscus correction (see7.2). 6. Apparatus 6.1  Glass Thermohydrometers , as specified in SpecificationE100 (shown in Fig. 1), and graduated in: 6.1.1 Kilograms/cubic metre (kg/m 3 ) and degrees Celsiusfor density hydrometers, as shown in Table Degrees API (°API) and degrees Fahrenheit for hy-drometers measuring in API Gravity, as shown in Table 2.6.2  Hydrometer Cylinders , clear glass, plastic, or metal. Forconvenience of pouring, the cylinder may have a pouring lip.The inside diameter shall be at least 25 mm (1 in.) greater thanthe outside diameter of the thermohydrometer used. The heightof the cylinder shall be such that the bottom of the thermohy-drometer clears the bottom of the cylinder by at least 25 mm(1 in.) when suspended in the sample test portion.6.2.1 For field testing, a sample thief of suitable dimensionsmay be more convenient than a hydrometer cylinder. Theliquid level shall be level with the top of the thief.6.3  Temperature Bath , to control temperature close to thebulk hydrocarbon temperature or to control temperature closeto the reference temperature of 15°C or 60°F. 7. Procedure 7.1  Effect of Test Temperature :7.1.1 The density or API gravity determined by the thermo-hydrometer method is most accurate at or near the referencetemperature of 15°C or 60°F. Other temperatures within therange of the enclosed thermometer may be used, if consistentwith the type of sample and the necessary limiting conditionsshown in Table 3. TABLE 1 Density Thermohydrometers ASTM Hydrometer No. Density, Range, kg/m 3 300H 600 to 650301H 650 to 700302H 700 to 750303H 750 to 800304H 800 to 850305H 850 to 900306H 900 to 950307H 950 to 1000308H 1000 to 1050309H 1050 to 1100HydrometerTotal length, mm 374 to 387Body diameter, mm 18 to 25Stem diameter, mm, min 4.0Hydrometer ScaleStandard temperature, °C 15Subdivisions, kg/m 3 0.5Short intermediate lines at, kg/m 3 1Long intermediate lines at, kg/m 3 5Main (numbered) lines at, kg/m 3 10Scale error at any point not to exceed, kg/m 3 0.5Length of nominal scale, mm 125 to 145Scale extension beyond nominal range limits, kg/m 3 2.5Thermometer ScaleRange, °CDesignation L −20 to +65Designation M 0 to +85Designation H +20 to +105Immersion totalSubdivisions, °C 1.0Intermediate lines at, °C 5Main (numbered) lines at, °C 10Scale error at any point not to exceed, °C 1.0Scale length, mm 80 to 100 D6822 – 02 (2008) 2 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);   7.1.2 If the test temperature is significantly different fromthe reference temperature of 15°C or 60°F, the expansion orcontraction of the glass may affect the calibration of thethermohydrometer. A hydrometer correction factor (  HYC  ) maybe applied to the measured density value to provide a corrected TABLE 2 API Gravity Thermohydrometers N OTE —For petroleum products and other liquids of similar surface tensions (33 dynes/cm or less). Thermometer Scale in Body Thermometer Scale in StemASTM HydrometerNo.Nominal API GravityRange, degreesASTM HydrometerNo.Nominal API GravityRange, degrees41H-66 15 to 23 71H-62 −1 to +1142H-66 22 to 30 72H-62 9 to 2143H-66 29 to 37 73H-62 19 to 3144H-66 36 to 44 74H-62 29 to 4145H-66 43 to 5151H-62 −1 to +1152H-62 9 to 2153H-62 19 to 3154H-62 29 to 4155H-62 39 to 5156H-62 49 to 6157H-62 59 to 7158H-62 69 to 8159H-62 79 to 9160H-62 89 to 101HydrometerThermometer Scalein BodyThermometer Scalein StemTotal length, mm 374 to 387 374 to 387Body diameter, mm 18 to 25 23 to 27Stem diameter, mm, min 4.0 6.0Hydrometer ScaleStandard temperature, °F 60Subdivisions, °API 0.1Intermediate lines at, °API 0.5Main (numbered) lines at, °API 1.0Scale error at any point not to exceed, °API 0.1Length of nominal scale, mm 125 to 145Thermometer ScaleThermometer Scalein BodyThermometer Scalein StemRange, °F A Designation L 0 to 150Designation M 30 to 180 30 to 220Designation H 60 to 220Immersion Total TotalSubdivisions, °F 2 2Intermediate lines at, °F 10 10Main (numbered) lines at, °F 20 20Scale error at any point not to exceed, °F 1 1Scale length, mm 80 to 110 105 to 145 A Indication of the thermometer range is made by the use of the listed designation used as a suffix to theASTM hydrometer number. For example, 54HLis an instrumentwith anAPI gravity range of 29 to 41°API and a thermometer range of 0 to 150°F.An instrument with the same gravity range but a thermometer range of 60 to 220°F wouldbe designated 54HH. The number 57HM would identify an instrument with an API gravity range of 59 to 71°API and a thermometer range of 30 to 180°F. TABLE 3 Limiting Conditions and Test Temperatures Sample Type Initial Boiling Point Other Limits Test TemperatureVolatile 120°C (250°F) or lower Cool in original closed container to 18°C (65°F) or lowerVolatile and viscous 120°C (250°F) or lower Viscosity too highat 18°C (65°F)Heat to minimum temperature to obtain sufficient fluidityNon-volatile Above 120°C (250°F) Use any temperature between −18°C and 90°C (0 and 195°F)as convenientMixture with non-petroleum products . . . Test at 15  6  0.2°C or 60  6  0.5°F D6822 – 02 (2008) 3 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);   reading. Historically, the following equations have been usedwithin volume correction factor tables. r corrected  5 r test  3  HYC   (2) where:  HYC   = hydrometer thermal correction factor, r corrected  = test density, corrected for the effects of tem-perature on the thermohydrometer, and r test  = test density, as observed by reading the ther-mohydrometer.  HYC   5  1  2  0.00001278 ~ t   2  60 !  2  0.0000000062 ~ t   2  60 ! 2 (3) where: t   = observed temperature (°F) or  HYC   5  1  2  0.000023 ~ t   2  15 !  2  0.00000002 ~ t   2  15 ! 2 (4) where: t   = observed temperature (°C). All parties affected by the measurement shouldagree upon the need for and the method of correction.7.1.3 When the thermohydrometer value is used to selectfactors for correcting volumes to standard temperatures, thethermohydrometer reading preferably should be made at a FIG. 1 Typical Thermohydrometer Designs D6822 – 02 (2008) 4 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); 
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