АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА. Методичні вказівки - PDF

Міністерство освіти і науки України Донбаська державна машинобудівна академія (ДДМА) АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА Методичні вказівки до вивчення лексикології для студентів-референтів 3-го курсу ДДМА Затверджено на

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Міністерство освіти і науки України Донбаська державна машинобудівна академія (ДДМА) АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА Методичні вказівки до вивчення лексикології для студентів-референтів 3-го курсу ДДМА Затверджено на засіданні методичної ради Протокол 4 від Краматорськ ДДМА 2013 УДК 142 Англійська мова : методичні вказівки до вивчення лексикології для студентів-референтів 3-го курсу ДДМА / уклад. О. П. Шевченко. Краматорск : ДГМА, с. Призначені для студентів-референтів 3-го курсу. Матеріал подано в трьох розділах: теоретичний матеріал, практичні завдання на закріплення теоретичного матеріалу, додатковий матеріал до самостійного опрацювання. Укладач Відп. за випуск О. П. Шевченко, канд. пед. наук, доцент Є. Д. Коротенко, зав. каф. 2 CONTENTS 1 FUNDAMENTALS Introduction Aspects of the Word Morpheme Structure. Word-formation Combining Forms and Hybrids Semantic Structure of English Words Types of Semantic Changes Etymological Survey of the English Word-stock Criteria for Determining Borrowings Homonymy and Sources of Homonyms Synonymy and Antonymy Relations in English Language Stylistic Classification of Vocabulary EXERCISES Lesson 1. The English Word-stock Lesson 2. The word Lesson 3. Vocabulary of a Language as a System SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS Phraseology: Word-groups with Transferred Meaning Vocabulary of American English The Grammar System of American English 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1.1 Introduction Lexicology is composed of two Greek morphemes: lexis word, phrase; logos learning. It is a science of a word. Lexicology has its own aids and methods. The subject matter of lexicology is a word. Science lexicology is the description of characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given language. We distinguish synchronic (descriptive) and diachronic (historic) lexicology. Synchronic lexicology is the study of the vocabulary at given stage of its development. Diachronic lexicology is the evolution of any vocabulary. We can distinguish such branches of lexicology: 1. Semasiology is a branch of lexicology dealing with the meaning of words. 2. Onomasiology is the study of means and ways of naming the elements of reality. 3. Etymology deals with the origin and history of words. 4. Lexicography is the theory and practice compelling dictionaries. Lexicology and Phonetics e.g. affect effect 'object object Stresses also influence the meaning of the words: e.g. blue bottle; bluebottle вacилек Lexicology and Grammar The meaning of the word is signaled by the grammar contest: e.g. to mean + Infinitive to intend to mean + Gerund to signify to go: to be going Continuous Tense to be going (Participle I) to be gone (Participle II) 1.2 Aspects of the Word Aspects of the Word: 1. Sound-form 2. Morphological structure. 3. Syntactic functions 4. Different meanings. The Characteristic Features of the Word. 1. Indivisibility: 1) a baby 2) afraid a tree asleep In the first case we can insert other words between these elements, we can separate them. In the second we can't insert other words. This prefix isn't free. 4 2) Positional mobility and uninterruptability: e.g. The agents sent Roger. It's a sequence of nine morphemes which occur in order to explain one another. Some groups behave like blocks. We can't say: s-agent the. 3) Semantic integrity. 4) Reproducibility. 5) Words may be used as a sentence. 6) We may regard words to the definite part of speech. Each notion is characterized by its scope and content. The scope of the notion is determined by the objects it refers to. The content of the notion is made up of all the features that distinguish it from other notions. e.g. tree: scope wider than willow, content willow is richer than tree. Notion is not the same as word. The words may be motivated and not motivated. Three types of motivation: - phonetic: when there is a certain similarity between the sounds that make up the word and those referred to by the sense: e.g. cuckoo, to giggle, to gurgle. - morphological: when the meaning of the words is motivated by affix: e.g. ex-wife, ex-president. - semantic: it's based on the coexistence of direct and figurative meaning of the same word: e.g. foot of a mountain. Non motivated words: When the connection between the meaning of the word and its form is conventional, there is no reason for word to have particular phonetic and morphological composition: e.g. to earn in O.E. (to harvest), awake I am awaken by my friend. 1.3 Morpheme Structure. Word-formation Morpheme is the smallest meaningful language unit. The particular features of morpheme are: 1. Morpheme is a double-sided language unit. It has external (sound) and internal (meaning) sides: e.g. house будинок teacher doer of the action. 2. Morpheme is indivisible into smaller meaning units. The Distinctions between Morphemes and Words Unlike words morpheme is not autonomous. Morphemes occur in speech only as constitutional part of the word, but word may consist of a single morpheme. Word is a minimum free form. Morpheme may be bound or free. Morpheme does not possess the syntactical independence and lexicalgrammatical reference. Morpheme can't be a part of speech. According to the form of expression morphemes may be: 5 - positive; - zero. Positive morpheme has a positive explicit form of expression: e.g. books plural form of the noun, changed Past Indefinite form. Zero morpheme conveys a certain grammatical meaning but has no positive explicit form of expression. We can single out zero morpheme only in impositions: book books. Morpheme may be free, semi-bound, bound. Free morpheme can be used separately without other morphemes. It has lexical meaning. Free morpheme can be found among roots: e.g. boy, house. Bound morpheme doesn't coincide with separate word-forms: e.g. kindness. Semi-bound morpheme is a root morpheme functioning as a derivational morpheme and may be used as a separate word: e.g. well-, self-, ill-, half-. According to the position all morphemes are -root, -stem, -affixes (prefixes, suffixes, infixes). According to their function and meaning morphemes may be: - derivational; - functional. The root is a lexical nucleus of the word, it has general and abstract lexical meaning. Root is a common element of words without a word family, e.g. hand handy, handball, handful, handsome, handbag. The stem is defined as a part of the word which remains unchanged throughout its paradigm: e.g. to ask asks, asked, asking. There are 3 structural types of the stems: 1. Single is semantically non-motivated. It has one single root morpheme: e.g. horrible, motion. 2. Derived stems are built on stems of different structures through which they are motivated. Derived stems are understood on the basis of the derivative relations between their constituent parts and correlated stems: e.g. girlish girl 3. Compounds is made up of 2 constituent parts. Both of them are stems. e.g. pen-holder der. S Affixes are morphemes that are always used with a root and not separately. Suffix is a derivational morpheme following the stem and forming a new derivative in different semantic groups: e.g. heart heartless friend friendship Prefix is a derivative morpheme standing before the root and modifying meaning: e.g. kind unkind Infix is an affix placed within the word: e.g. stand This type is non-productive. Semi-affixes may be: semi-prefixes and semi-suffixes: e.g. mini mini-crises maxi maxi-coat self self-help man countryman wise otherwise like lady-like 6 Allomorphemeis a variant of one and the same morpheme: e.g. s boys; desks; benches. Functional affixes serve to convey grammatical meaning. They build different forms of one and the same words: e.g. boy boys plural form; wanted Past. Derivational affixes build different types of words: e.g. blackness According to the origin all derivational affixes are subdivided into native and foreign (borrowings). Many of affixes of native origin were independent words. But in the course of time they lost their independence and turned into derivation affixes. Such suffixes as: -done, -hood, -ship ( sentence , state , ship in Old English). Some suffixes have developed out of grammatical morphemes as a result of lexicolization of grammar forms. Native derivation suffixes: -ing, -s, -ly, -some,-y, -th, -wise. Native prefixes: -out, -under, -over, -miss, -un. Among foreign affixes: -able, -ible, -al, -age, -ance, -ist, -ism, -ment. Foreign prefixes: dis-, en-, inter-, re-, ex-, non-. Among borrowed affixes we have international affixes: -ist, -ism; prefixes: inter-, anti-, past-, trans-, pre-: e.g. transatlantic Word-format ion is the process of creating new words from the material available in the language after certain structure and semantic formulas and patterns. There are 2 types of word-formation: - a word-derivation (словотворення) - word-composition (словоскладання) Words that are created by word-derivation have one root morpheme. And word-derivation may be of 2 types: affixation and suffixation. Affixation is defined as a formation of words by adding derivative affixes to stems: e.g. hand + less = handless In Modem English suffixation is characteristic of noun and adjective formation. While prefixation is difficult of verb formation, prefixes modify lexical meaning of stems to which they are added. Prefixes are more independent semantically. Unlike suffixation which is usually bound up with the paradigm of the definite part of speech, prefixation is considered to be neutral in this respect. Prefixes are subdivided into several classes accordingly to their origin, meaning and function and never according to the part of speech formed. Prefixes of negative meaning: -un, -in, -dis e.g. disadvantage, incorrect. Prefixes of reversal (repetition of action): un-, dis-, re-: e.g. rewrite, disconnect. Prefixes may also be classified as productive and non-productive: re productive, in non-productive. Within the scope of the part of speech classification of suffixes may be of the following groups: 1. Non-forming suffixes. They are: -er, -dom, -ness, -action e.g. teacher, freedom. 2. Adjective-forming suffixes: -able, -less, -full, -ic e.g. poetic, careless. 7 3. Word-forming suffixes: -en, -fy, -ize, -ish e.g. establish, satisfy. 4. Adverb-forming suffixes: -ly, -ward, -wise e.g. likewise 6. Numeral-forming suffixes: -teen, -th, -ty e.g. fourteen Classification of suffixes may be based on the criteria of a sense expressed by the suffix. This classification is: 1. The agent of the verbal action: e.g. baker, dancer, actress, heroine. 2. Appurtenance: e.g. Arabian. 3. Collectivity: peasantry. 4. Dixninutiveness: girlie, booklet, hillock kitchenette. Like prefixes suffixes may also be classified as productive and nonproductive. Productivity is characterized by the ability of a given suffix to make new words. Productive suffixes: -er, -ist, -ish, -ward, -er, e.g. teacher, reddish. Non-productive suffixes: -ard, -cy, -ive, -en e.g. obstinacy, defensive. Conversion_is the way of coining a new word in a different part of speech but within adding any derivative element: e.g. paper (noun) - to paper (verb) a catch (noun) to catch (verb) 1.4 Combining Forms and Hybrids Combining form is a bound form but it can be distinguished from the affix historically by the fact that it is always borrowed from another language (Greek or Latin) in which it existed as a free form: e.g. autos self' automatic; phone sound, noise telephone. Combining forms occur together with other combining forms and not with native roots. Almost all these examples are international words: e.g. automobile. Hybrids are words that are made up of elements derived from 2 or more different languages: e.g. readable read {English); able (Latin); bicycles bi Latin; cycle English. Word Composition is word formation where the word is formed by combining two or more stems. It's one of the productive types of the word formation. The criteria for distinguishing between compounds and free combinations: 1. Phonetic: all compounds have one single stress: e.g. green house. Exception: 2 stresses in nouns the first elements are: all, self-: self-control. And in compound adjectives: grey-green. 2. Morphological: the compound green-house the first element of which is grammatically unchanged. The plural form is added to the whole unit. 3. Syntactical: between the parts of a free word-group we can put another word: e.g. a 'mad-doctor, a 'mad 'doctor. 4. Graphic: compounds have 2 types of spelling: independent and with hyphen (дефіс). 8 5. Semantic. e.g. bluebottle волошка, blue bottle ; In most cases only several criteria can identify compounds. Different ways of compounding: 1. Compounds proper. 2. Derivational compounds. Compounds proper formed by joining together stems of words: e.g. looking glass. Derivational may be: а) compounds which are formed with a help of adjective-forming suffix -ed: e.g. blue-eyed, long-legged. b) compounds which are formed with the help of conversion: e.g. to hold up(verb); hold up (noun). c) N stem + N stem + -er: e.g. honeymooner. Shortening of words stands apart from above division. It consists of substitute a part for a whole: 1. Graphical abbreviations: a.m., p.m. 2. Lexical abbreviation may be of two types: - with alphabetic reading: BBC, TV; - clipping consists in the cutting off one or several syllables of the word: - final clipping: advertisement ad; - initial clipping: telephone phone; - medial clipping: mathematics math. Non-productive way of blending. It's the formation that combines two words and includes letters or sounds they have in common as a connecting element: - e.g. smoke + fog = smog. - back-formation. It's the derivation of new words by subtracting a real or supposed affect from existing words through misinterpretation of their structure: e.g. teach + -r teacher; paint + -er painter; beggar to beg; sculptor to sculpt. - sound-and-stress interchange may be of two types: vowel and consonant: e.g. full to fill; speak speech; - stress interchange: e.g. 'conduct (n) поведінка, con'duct вести. Onomatopoeia. It's a formation of words from sounds that resemble the object or actions which are named: e.g. cuckoo. 1.5 Semantic Structure of English Words Semasiology is a branch of Linguistics that is devoted to the study of meaning of words and word equivalents. There are 2 approaches of definition to meaning. They are referential and functional. 9 Referential approach seeks to formulate the essence of meaning by establishing the interdependence between words and things or concepts they denote. Functional approach studies the function of the word in speech. The essential feature of the referential approach is that it distinguishes between 3 components: - the sound form of the linguistic sign; - the concept; - the referent. The sound-form is connected with a concept and through it with the referent. The common feature of any referential approach is the implication that meaning is connected with the referent. The sound form of the word is not identical with the meaning. Concept is the thought of the object that singles out it's essential features. Functional approach holds the view that the meaning of linguistic unit may be studied only through its relation to concept or referent: e.g. move movement. In functional approach the meaning is understood as the function or use of linguistic science. These approaches are incomplete without each other. Meaning of words is made up of different components, the combination and interrelation of which determine to a great extent of the word. These components are called as types of meaning. There are 4 most important types of semantic complexity: - every word combines lexical and grammatical meaning. Grammatical meaning may be defined as a component of meaning received in identical sets of individual forms of different words. It is more abstract and more generalized than the lexical meaning: e.g. asked, thought have one Grammatical meaning Past Tense. Lexical meaning may be defined as component of meaning recurrent in all the forms of this word and all possible distributions of these forms. It is the realization of concept or emotion by means of a definite language system. Lexical meaning is the semantic invariant of the grammatical variation of word: e.g. go, goes, went, going all of them have one lexical meaning movement. By lexical meaning we define the meaning proper to the given linguistic unit in all its forms and distributions. By grammar unit we define the meaning proper to sets of word-forms common to all words of a certain class. Both grammatical and lexical meanings make up the word-meaning. They can't exist without each other. There are following types of lexical meaning: direct and figurative. Direct meaning nominates the referent without the help of context (in isolation): e.g. friend. The meaning is figurative when the object is named and at the same time is characterized through its similarity with other object: e.g. a foot of a mountain. 10 - concrete and abstract: e.g. screen 1. screen ширма, екран (concrete meaning); 2. fire -screen захист, прикриття (direct meaning); smoke-screen (figurative meaning); screen кино (abstract meaning). Main(primary) and secondary meanings: Screen ширма, екран main meaning; кіно, екран secondary meaning. Word may be polysemantic (it may have several meanings all interconnected and forming its semantic structure) and monosemantic (have only one meaning). Monosemantic word molecule. Polisemantic word gossip. Lexical context e.g. black 1) colour: black gloves, black velvet 2) feelings or thoughts: black despair. 3) the context is called syntactic when the indicative power belongs to the syntactic patterns and to the words: e.g. make (cause) + Complex Object I couldn't make him understand the word I said. A pure syntactic context is rare. As a rule we have syntactic, lexical and morphological factors in the context: e.g. late predicatively to be late to be late for school. 1.6 Types of Semantic Changes Change of meaning in the cause of qualitative and quantitative development of the vocabulary. We distinguish the following developments of the vocabulary: 1) transference of meaning (metaphor and metonymy); 2) narrowing of meaning (or specialization); 3) extension of meaning (generalization); 4) elevation of meaning (or anubioration); 5) degradation of meaning (pejoration). Words are used in two ways: - literary - figurative. When we use literary meaning they have their natural and usual meaning. When we use figurative meaning they have a suggestive meaning: e.g. figures of speech. Metaphor is a deep semantic transformation of the word going far beyond its primary semantic range. It's a semantic process of associating two references, one of which resembles the other. 1) poetic meaning: the key to a mystery; 2) linguistic meaning (dead meaning): leg of the table. Zoosemy is nicknaming from animals used metaphorical: e.g. a bear. 11 Closely related with metaphor is simile. Simile is an indirect comparison using such words as like, as and other words link to objects and other words of the comparisons. Metonymy is the semantic process of associating two references, one of which makes part of the other or is closely connected with it. The simplest case of metonymy is synecdoche. Synecdoche means giving the part on
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