After Media Literacy – Media Competence – The Challenge of Media Change

After Media Literacy – Media Competence – The Challenge of Media Change. Universiti Putra Malaysia Nov. 9, 2011. Thomas A. Bauer, Dr. Univ. Prof. Department of Communication Faculty of Social Sciences University Vienna / Austria

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After Media Literacy –Media Competence – The Challenge of Media Change Universiti Putra Malaysia Nov. 9, 2011 Thomas A. Bauer, Dr. Univ. Prof. Department of Communication Faculty of Social Sciences University Vienna / Austria MEDIA CULTURE – THE SYMBOLIC ENVIRONMENT FORSOCIAL COMMUNICATION Main Theses: 1-Media – the universal language system: a reference system of symbolic interaction in everyday life for the exchange of experience, perception, observation, and construction of meaning (S.J. Schmidt, A. Schütz, Th. Luckmann) 2-From language/media literacy to socio-media competence: adaptive/ affirmative / repressive vs. authentic, self-competent / emancipative/ elaborated use of language / media (H.M.Enzensberger, B.Bernstein, J. Habermas) 3-Language/media habit - generative grammar and appropriation of reality (N. Chomsky, P. Bourdieu, M. de Certeau) 4-From socialized to social use of media (situational, technological) position of reading (decoding): affirmative (adopted), natural, oppositional (Th. A. Bauer, A. Hepp, S. Hall) 5-From compensation programs to participation competence: self-realization as a balance of environmental relationship (J. Piaget, D. Baacke) MASS-MEDIA CULTURE – MEDIA MASS-CULTURE - THE CODE OF MEDIA SOCIETY The model of hierarchical and industrial society? MassMediaCommunication: Journalism: organizational system for distribution of information and news shaping public opinion (technology & organisational strategy (system of trust) - -media in an industrial manner -professionalism of production (technological perfection) -against ignorant / dependent audience? -shaping the responsibility for mutual understanding: socialized use of media through professionalism / quality in context of production, media literacy (capacity, skills) in context of consumption (media education) MASS-MEDIA CULTURE – MEDIA MASS-CULTURE: THE CODE OF MEDIA SOCIETY Beyond hierarchical and industrial society? MediaMassCommunication: Social Media: network organism for sharing information, news, and diverse meaning - media as a network (community building) - casual, instant, ubiqitious option to get connected - producer-consumer-model becoming obsolete - sharing the capacity/responsibility/habit for mutual understanding in context of construction of reality: professionalism and media competence as connected system of trust (from hierarchy to heterarchy, from distribution of news to social balance of communication right/duty/responsibility MEDIA SOCIETY – THE SOCIETY CONSTITUTING ACCORDING THE MODEL OF MEDIA Mediality as the Logics of Observation and Self-Reflection as well as of the Organization of the Global Society
  • Attention, performance, dissipativity, openly constructed relation, show-effect, news-effect, ubiquity, publicity, wide range, uniqueness, prominence etc.
  • (cf. S. Krotz, A. Hepp – “mediatisation”)
  • In a globalized information-, communication- and knowledge - society context: Understanding the reality needs to understand media - Understanding media needs to reflect the communicational structure of reality (cf. J. Habermas / N.Luhmann)
  • THEORETICAL APPROACHES UNDERSTANDING THE RELATION OF COMMUNICATION AD MEDIA (MEDIA) COMMUNICATION IDEA THEORY INTERPRETATIONPRACTICE ANALYSIS MEDIA (COMMUNICATION) REALITY Normative critical approach Critical-emancipative approach Pragmatic approach Analytical approach UNDERSTANDING MEDIACOMMUNICATION AS THE NORMATIVE CONCEPT OF OBSERVATON OF MEDIA normative-hermeneutical approach: Interprets the principles / values of usage of media as means or agency of cognitive, affective and active participation in public discourse and in societal conversation in order to get connected and synchronized with different and professionally based interpretations of events and decisions that are publicly supposed to be meaningful for personal and public management of life UNDERSTANDING MEDIACOMMUNICATION AS THE CRITICAL CONCEPT OF OBSERVATION OF MEDIA critical- emancipative approach: reflects the use of media in relation and respect to criteria of communication (participation, interaction, involvement, authenticity, autonomy, sovereignty, awareness) and asks whether and under what conditions they can be fulfilled or would be failed (cf. Frankfurt School, TH.W. Adorno / M. Horkheimer) UNDERSTANDING MEDIACOMMUNICATION AS THE EMPIRICAL CONCEPT OF MEDIA ANALYSIS empirical- analytical approach: Analyses the use of media observing the relation of action and structures as a source of experience, of inspiration, of setting agenda and as a generalized frame of reference for public knowledge in order to get connected to the generalization of behaviour (functional perspective) UNDERSTANDING MEDIACOMMUNICATION AS THE PRAGMATIC CONCEPT OF DOING THE MEDIA pragmatic approach: Analyses Media in the interest of getting out how to use it as a resource of information and what is publicly supposed to be news in order to gain a preferred position within the social structures of competition for (active or passive) public attention (market) (industrial, professionalism perspective) UNDERSTANDING MEDIACOMMUNICATION AS THE CONSTRUCTIVIST CONCEPT OF MEDIA STUDIES culturalist approach: Turn from structural / functional analysis to Cultural Studies Instead of structuralist – a culturalist concept of Media: Media is not the infrastructure but the use of it: Use of Media reflects people’s search in styling their life according to traditions, narrations, stories, Histories, and social observation: what is majority doing – Why? - in order to get connected to narrations, discourses, trends, myths and conversational measures. UNDERSTANDING MEDIAThe Cultural Studies Thesis Communication Model Behind the Concept of Mediality:
  • Communication is not an action by and through itself, but always connected to the social conditions (context) of life and not only happens through language but also through life style (way of life)
  • Communication is the context of construction of meaning and getting connected to options of sense through the exchange of experience -
  • Must not happen in the way of assimilation (unity-model consensus-model), it is also the cultural model for getting aware of difference (diversity-model, heresy-model)
  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA CHANGEThe Cultural Studies Thesis
  • Social Change: The concept of understanding reality: Change does not happen to the reality and to its observation; it happens through observation and is the structure of reality
  • Media Change (economically driven, technologically performed) is the cultural / relational and communicational performance of social change – it mirrors the paradigms of change (action and observation) in mind, attitude, habit and behaviour.
  • The question is not, what is the media impact (effect) in change , the question is, how changing discourse rules ( effect the use of media (cf. M. Foucault)? 
  • MEDIA UNDER THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION stepsofcomplexityofconceptualizingmedia HIGH GRADE of Complexity LOW CULTURAL AGREEMENT OF SOCIAL PRACTICE SYMBOLICALLY MEDIATED INTERACTION MEDIA ENVIRONMENT MEDIA ORGANISATION MEDIA PROGRAMME TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE CULTURAL PERSEPCTIVES OF MEDIALITY Media - Identity : How to save/develop the authenticity of real self under conditions of mediated relation? Media - Ecology : How to save/preserve the „nature“ of interpersonal communication before technical alienation? Media Competence: How to use media as an agency of realizing individuality under conditions of a media organized society? Media Culture: How does the everyday usage of media effect the culture of sociability? Media Learning: What attitudes are we able to develop, in order to create an societal learning process out of it (media competence)? UNDERSTANDING MEDIA COMPETENCECompetence Models in general
  • Competence - a normative term: is directed to social agreements of social and individual values
  • Competence - a critical term: is directed to distinguish between systems demands and Lebenswelt-consciousness
  • Competence – a pragmatic term: is directed to the possibility of learning and of development.
  • UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCEwheredoestheimaginationcomefrom? Competence is not a natural quality, but is a category of the cultural interpretation of human attitude in relation to the natural, cultural, social, technical and symbolic environment. It says that mankind is able and capable to organize its position in relation to the environment in a cultural manner - thus forming personality and individuality in order to become an identifiable part of it. -cultural-anthropological interpretation -psychological interpretation -educational interpretation UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCEwhere does the imagination come from?
  • Anthropological interpretation The Competence term represents an anthropological interpretation of risks and chances of surviving by means that are only given to mankind: making decision by free will and by reflection - using means of intelligence, notion, cognition and consciousness. Within that tradition competence is a dimension of human performance of life that has to be supposed to be anyone’s own. Competence values in that frame above all others is: advantage privilege
  • UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCEwhere does the imagination come from?
  • Psychological interpretation:
  • Competence of personal life depends to certain extent from different pre-conditions of socialisation: family structure, personality structure, culture of relationship. Media Competence is not a special competence, but more the reflection of understanding one’s personal life styling under socio-cultural frame conditions: The social climate.
  • Understanding Competencewhere does the imagination come from?
  • Psychological interpretation:
  • Values of Competence within psychological interpretation are: authenticity, open mindedness, distinctiveness, reflexivity, critical distance against yourself and critical closeness o others
  • Development of competence needs a socio-hygienic climate – in individual but also in societal dimensions. Non-hygienic climates lead to strategies of simulation and compensative inscenation of performing one’s own life or the life of the society/community/organization.
  • UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCEwhere does the imagination come from?
  • Educational interpretation: Competence always has been a goal for education and pedagogy insofar educational and learning programs aims to bring young people to the state of ability, capacity and responsibility in all socially relevant fields of behaviour. Education works theoretically and practically in the direction of an idealtypical assumption of an individual and tries to challenge the learning capacity of individuals according to a system of socialisation.
  • Ability (to know what operations and how to do them in case of – skills)
  • Capacity (to have the cognitive, affective and active means and preparedness: skills)
  • Responsibility (to be conscious of what it means for oneself and/or for others: consequences and possible effects
  • Morality (to be aware of the implicated values when making personal decisions)
  • In media knowledge, media participation and media usage
  • Exemplaric Back GroundReferencies
  • Baacke, Dieter (1997): Medienkompetenz. Tübingen: Niemeyer Verlag
  • Bauer, Thomas A. (2011): In Zukunft mehr Kommunikation. Gesellschaft im Spiegel des Medienwandels. In: Koschnik, Wolfgang J. (ed.): Focus Jahrbuch 2010, S. 1 – 83
  • Bourdieu, Pierre (1998): Praktische Vernunft. Zur Theorie des Handelns. Frankfurt: siuhrkamp
  • Bernstein, Basil: Elaborated and Restricted Codes: Their Origins and some Consequences. In: Gumperz, J.J. / Hymes, D (ed.): The Ethnography of Communication. In: American Anthropologist. Special Publication, 66, 1964,/6, Part II, S. 55- 69
  • Certeau, Michel de (1989): Die Kunst des Handelns. Berlin
  • Chomsky, Noam (1972): Aspekte der Syntax-Theorie. Frankfurt: suhrkamp
  • Enzensberger, Hans M. (1970): Baukasten zu einer Theorie der Medien. In: Kursbuch 20,: suhrkamp, p. 159 – 186
  • Foucault, Michel (1974): Die Ordnung der Dinge. Eine Archäologie der Humanwissenschaften. Frankfurt: suhrkamp
  • Hall, Stuart Hall, Stuart.(1993): Encoding, Decoding. In: During, S.: The Cultural Studies Reader. London: Routledge
  • Habermas, Jürgen Habermas, Jürgen (1981): Thorie des kommunikativen Handelns (1981): Bd 1: Handlungsrealität und gesellschaftliche Rationalisierung. Bd 2: Kritik der funktionalistischen Vernunft. Frankfurt: suhrkamp
  • Hepp, Andreas (2008): Netzwerke der Medien. – Netzwerke des Alltags: Medienalltag in der Netzwerkgesellschaft. In Thomas, Tanja (ed): Medienkultur und soziales Handeln. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, p. 63 - 89
  • Horkheimer, Max / Adorno, Theodor W. (1969 / 2003): Dialektik der Aufklärung. Philosophische Fragmente. Frankfurt: Fischer
  • Krotz, Friedrich: Mediatisirung von Alltag, Kultur und Gesellschaft. Ein gesellschaftlicher Metaprozess wird besichtigt. Wiesbaden 2001
  • Mead, George Herbert (1973): Geist, Identität und Gesellschaft Frankfurt: suhrkam
  • Luhmann, Niklas (2004): Die Realität der Masenmedien. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften ( 3 ed.)
  • Piaget, Jean (1947): La représentation du monde chez l’enfant. Pariis: Presses Universitaires de France
  • Schmidt, Siegfried J. (2003): Geschichten und Diskurse. Abschied vom Konstruktivismus. Frankfurt
  • Schütz, Alfred / Luckmann, Thomas 1984) : Strukturen der Lebenswelt. Bd 2. Frankfurt/M.: suhrkamp
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