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  Designation: A 53/A 53M – 00  An American National Standard Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded andSeamless 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 53/A 53M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon ( e ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. 1. Scope 1.1 This specification 2 covers seamless and welded black and hot-dipped galvanized steel pipe in NPS  1  ⁄  8  to NPS 26 [DN6 to DN 650] (Note 1), inclusive, with nominal wall thickness(Note 2) as given in Table X2.2 and Table X2.3. It shall bepermissible to furnish pipe having other dimensions (Note 2)provided such pipe complies with all other requirements of thisspecification. N OTE  1—The dimensionless designators NPS (nominal pipe size) [DN(diameter nominal)] have been substituted in this specification for suchtraditional terms as “nominal diameter,” “size,” and “nominal size.”N OTE  2—The term nominal wall thickness has been assigned for thepurpose of convenient designation, existing in name only, and is used todistinguish it from the actual wall thickness, which may vary over orunder the nominal wall thickness. 1.2 This specification covers the following types andgrades:1.2.1  Type F  —Furnace-butt welded, continuous weldedGrade A,1.2.2  Type E  —Electric-resistance welded, Grades A and B,and1.2.3  Type S  —Seamless, Grades A and B. N OTE  3—See Appendix X1 for definitions of types of pipe. 1.3 Pipe ordered under this specification is intended formechanical and pressure applications and is also acceptable forordinary uses in steam, water, gas, and air lines. It is suitablefor welding, and suitable for forming operations involvingcoiling, bending, and flanging, subject to the following quali-fications:1.3.1 Type F is not intended for flanging.1.3.2 When Types S and E are required for close coiling orcold bending, Grade A is the preferred grade. This provision isnot intended to prohibit the cold bending of Grade B pipe.1.3.3 Type E is furnished either nonexpanded or coldexpanded at the option of the manufacturer.1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard.1.5 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to thetest method portion, Sections 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, and 17 of thisspecification:  This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 The text of this specification contains notes or footnotes,or both, that provide explanatory material. Such notes andfootnotes, excluding those in tables and figures, do not containany mandatory requirements. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1  ASTM Standards: A 90/A 90M Test Method for Weight [Mass] of Coating onIron or Steel Articles with Zinc or Zinc-Alloy Coatings 3 A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel Products 4,5,6 A 530/A 530M Specification for General Requirements forSpecialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe 4 A 700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and LoadingMethods for Steel Products for Domestic Shipment 6 A 751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology forChemical Analysis of Steel Products 4,5,6 A 865 Specification for Threaded Couplings, Steel, Black and Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Welded or Seamless, forUse in Steel Pipe Joints 4 B 6 Specification for Zinc 7 E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with Specifications 8 E 59 Practice for Sampling Steel and Iron for Determination 1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.09 on Carbon Steel Tubular Products.Current edition approved Dec. 10, 2000. Published February 2001. Originallypublished as A 53 – 15. Last previous edition A 53 – 99b. 2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related Specifi-cation SA-53 in Section II of that code. 3  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.06. 4  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.01. 5  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.03. 6  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.05. 7  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 02.04. 8  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 14.02. 1 Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. NOTICE: This standard has either been superseded and replaced by a new version or discontinued.Contact ASTM International (www.astm.org) for the latest information.  of Chemical Composition 9 E 213 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipeand Tubing 10 E 309 Practice for Eddy-Current Examination of Steel Tu-bular Products Using Magnetic Saturation 10 E 570 Practice for Flux Leakage Examination of Ferromag-netic Steel Tubular Products 10 2.2  ANSI Standards: ASC X12 11 B1.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose 11 2.3  ASME Standard: B36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe 12 2.4  Military Standards: MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage 13 MIL-STD-163 Steel Mill Products Preparation for Ship-ment and Storage 13 2.5  Federal Standards: Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment (Civil Agencies) 14 Fed. Std. No 183 Continuous Identification Marking of Ironand Steel Products 14 2.6  API Standard: 5L Specification for Line Pipe 15 3. Ordering Information 3.1 Information items to be considered, if appropriate, forinclusion in the purchase order are as follows:3.1.1 Specification designation (A 53 or A 53M, includingyear of issue),3.1.2 Quantity (feet, metres, or number of lengths),3.1.3 Grade (see Table 1),3.1.4 Type (see 1.2 and Table 2),3.1.5 Finish (black or galvanized),3.1.6 Size (either nominal (NPS) [DN] and weight class orschedule number, or both; or outside diameter and nominalwall thickness, Table X2.2 and Table X2.3),3.1.7 Length (specific or random, Section 18),3.1.8 End finish (plain end or threaded, Section 13), Threaded and coupled, if desired, Threads only (no couplings), if desired, Plain end, if desired, Couplings power tight, if desired, Taper tapped couplings for NPS 2 [DN 50] andsmaller, if desired,3.1.9 Close coiling, if required (see 8.2),3.1.10 Skelp for tension tests, if permitted (see 17.2),3.1.11 Certification (see Section 22),3.1.12 End use of material,3.1.13 Special requirements, and 9 Discontinued 1996; Replaced by E 1806. 10  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 03.03. 11 Available from American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd St., 13thFloor, New York, NY 10036. 12 Available from ASME International, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY10016–5990. 13 Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D,700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS. 14 Available from General Services Administration, Washington, DC 20405. 15 Available from American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, Northwest,Washington, DC 20005–4070. TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements Composition, max, %Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Copper A Nickel A Chromium A Molybdenum A Vanadium A Type S (seamless pipe)Open-hearth,electric-furnaceor basic-oxygen:Grade A 0.25 0.95 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08Grade B 0.30 1.20 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08Type E (electric-resistance-welded)Open-hearth,electric-furnaceor basic-oxygen:Grade A 0.25 0.95 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08Grade B 0.30 1.20 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08Type F (furnace-welded pipe)Open-hearth, electric-furnace,or basic oxygenGrade A 0.30 1.20 0.05 0.045 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.15 0.08 A The combination of these five elements shall not exceed 1.00 %. TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements Type F Types E and SOpen-Hearth,BasicOxygen,or Electric-Furnace,Grade AGrade A Grade BTensile strength, min, psi[MPa]48 000 [330] 48 000 [330] 60 000 [415]Yield strength, min, psi,[MPa]30 000 [205] 30 000 [205] 35 000 [240]Elongation in 2 in. [50 mm]  A , B A , B A , B A The minimum elongation in 2 in. [50 mm] shall be that determined by thefollowing equation: e   5  625 000  @ 1940 #  A 0.2  /  U   0.9 where: e   = minimum elongation in 2 in. [50 mm] in percent rounded to the nearestpercent, A  = cross-sectional area of the tension specimen, rounded to the nearest0.01 in. 2 [1 mm 2 ], based on the specified outside diameter or the nominalspecimen width and specified wall thickness. If the area calculated isequal to or greater than 0.75 in. 2 [500 mm 2 ], then the value 0.75 in. 2 [500mm  2 ] shall be used, and U   = specified tensile strength, psi [MPa]. B  SeeTable X4.1 orTable X4.2, whichever is applicable, for minimum elongationvalues for various size tension specimens and grades. A 53/A 53M 2  3.1.14 Selection of applicable level of preservation andpackaging and level of packing required, if other than asspecified or if MIL-STD-163 applies (see 21.2). 4. Materials and Manufacture 4.1 The steel for both seamless and welded pipe shall bemade by one or more of the following processes: open-hearth,electric-furnace, or basic-oxygen.4.2 When steels of different grades are sequentially strandcast, identification of the resultant transition material is re-quired. The producer shall remove the transition material byany established procedure that positively separates the grades.4.3 The weld seam of electric-resistance welded pipe inGrade B shall be heat treated after welding to a minimum of 1000°F [540°C] so that no untempered martensite remains, orotherwise processed in such a manner that no untemperedmartensite remains.4.4 When pipe is cold expanded, the amount of expansionshall not exceed 1 1  ⁄  2  % of the outside diameter pipe size. 5. Chemical Composition 5.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements as tochemical composition in Table 1 and the chemical analysisshall be in accordance with Test Methods, Practices, andTerminology A 751. 6. Product Analysis 6.1 The purchaser is permitted to perform an analysis of twopipes from each lot of 500 lengths, or fraction thereof. Samplesfor chemical analysis, except for spectrographic analysis, shallbe taken in accordance with Method E 59. The chemicalcomposition thus determined shall conform to the requirementsspecified in Table 1.6.2 If the analysis of either pipe does not conform to therequirements specified in Table 1, analyses shall be made onadditional pipes of double the srcinal number from the samelot, each of which shall conform to the requirements specified. 7. Tensile Requirements 7.1 The material shall conform to the requirements as totensile properties prescribed in Table 2.7.2 The yield strength corresponding to a permanent offsetof 0.2 % of the gage length of the specimen or to a totalextension of 0.5 % of the gage length under load shall bedetermined.7.3 The test specimen taken across the weld shall show atensile strength not less than the minimum tensile strengthspecified for the grade of pipe ordered. This test will not berequired for pipe under NPS 8 [DN 200].7.4 Transverse tension test specimens for electric-weldedpipe NPS 8 [DN 200] and larger shall be taken opposite theweld. All transverse test specimens shall be approximately 1 1  ⁄  2 in. [40 mm] wide in the gage length, and shall represent the fullwall thickness of the pipe from which the specimen was cut.This test is required for NPS 8 [DN 200] and larger. 8. Bending Requirements 8.1 For pipe NPS 2 [DN 50] and under, a sufficient length of pipe shall be capable of being bent cold through 90° around acylindrical mandrel, the diameter of which is twelve times theoutside diameter of the pipe, without developing cracks at anyportion and without opening the weld.8.2 When ordered for close coiling, the pipe shall standbeing bent cold through 180° around a cylindrical mandrel, thediameter of which is eight times the outside diameter of thepipe, without failure.8.3 Double-extra-strong pipe over NPS 1 1  ⁄  4  [DN 32] neednot be subjected to the bend test. 9. Flattening Test 9.1 The flattening test shall be made on pipe over NPS 2[DN 50] with all thicknesses extra strong and lighter.9.2  Seamless Pipe :9.2.1 For seamless pipe, a test specimen at least 2  1  ⁄  2  in. [60mm] in length shall be flattened cold between parallel plates intwo steps. During the first step, which is a test for ductility, nocracks or breaks on the inside, outside, or end surfaces, exceptas provided for in 9.7, shall occur until the distance betweenthe plates is less than the value of   H   calculated as follows:  H   5  ~ 1  1 e ! t   /  ~ e  1  t   /   D ! where:  H   = distance between flattening plates, in. [mm] (Note 4), e  = deformation per unit length (constant for agiven grade of steel, 0.09 for Grade A, and 0.07for Grade B), t   = nominal wall thickness, in. [mm], and  D  = specified outside diameter, in. [mm]9.2.2 During the second step, which is a test for soundness,the flattening shall be continued until the test specimen breaksor the opposite sides of the pipe meet. Evidence of laminatedor unsound material that is revealed during the entire flatteningtest shall be cause for rejection. N OTE  4—The  H   values have been calculated for standard and extra-heavy weight sizes from NPS 2 1  ⁄  2  to NPS 24 [DN 65 to DN 600],inclusive, and are shown in Table X2.1. 9.3  Electric-Resistance-Welded Pipe — A test specimen atleast 4 in. [100 mm] in length shall be flattened cold betweenparallel plates in three steps, with the weld located either 0° or90° from the line of direction of force as required in 9.3.1 or9.3.2, whichever is applicable. During the first step, which is atest for ductility of the weld, no cracks or breaks on the insideor outside surfaces shall occur until the distance between theplates is less than two thirds of the srcinal outside diameter of the pipe. As a second step, the flattening shall be continued.During the second step, which is a test for ductility exclusiveof the weld, no cracks or breaks on the inside or outsidesurfaces, except as provided for in 9.7, shall occur until thedistance between the plates is less than one third of the srcinaloutside diameter of the pipe but is not less than five times thewall thickness of the pipe. During the third step, which is a testfor soundness, the flattening shall be continued until the testspecimen breaks or the opposite walls of the pipe meet.Evidence of laminated or unsound material or of incompleteweld that is revealed during the entire flattening test shall because for rejection.9.3.1 For pipe produced in single lengths, the flattening testspecified in 9.3 shall be made using a test specimen taken from A 53/A 53M 3  each end of each length of pipe. The tests from each end shallbe made alternately with the weld at 0° and at 90° from the lineof direction of force.9.3.2 For pipe produced in multiple lengths, the flatteningtest specified in 9.3 shall be made as follows: Test specimens taken from, and representative of,the front end of the first pipe intended to be supplied from eachcoil, the back end of the last pipe intended to be supplied fromeach coil, and each side of any intermediate weld stop locationshall be flattened with the weld located at 90° from the line of direction of force. Test specimens taken from pipe at any two locationsintermediate to the front end of the first pipe and the back endof the last pipe intended to be supplied from each coil shall beflattened with the weld located at 0° from the line of directionof force.9.3.3 For pipe that is to be subsequently reheated through-out its cross section and hot formed by a reducing process, themanufacturer shall have the option of obtaining the flatteningtest specimens required by 9.3.1 or 9.3.2, whichever is appli-cable, either prior to or after such hot reducing.9.4  Continuous-Welded Pipe —For continuous-welded pipe,a specimen not less than 4 in. [100 mm] in length shall beflattened cold between parallel plates in three steps. The weldshall be located 90° from the line of direction of force. Duringthe first step, which is a test for quality of the weld, no cracksor breaks on the inside, outside, or end surfaces shall occuruntil the distance between the plates is less than three fourthsof the original outside diameter for butt-welded pipe. As asecond step, the flattening shall be continued. During thesecond step, which is a test for ductility exclusive of the weld,no cracks or breaks on the inside, outside, or end surfaces,except as provided for in 9.7, shall occur until the distancebetween the plates is less than 60 % of the srcinal outsidediameter for continuous-welded pipe. During the third step,which is a test for soundness, the flattening shall be continueduntil the specimen breaks or the opposite walls of the pipemeet. Evidence of laminated or unsound material or of incom-plete weld that is revealed during the entire flattening test shallbe cause for rejection.9.5 Surface imperfections in the test specimen before flat-tening, but revealed during the first step of the flattening test,shall be judged in accordance with the finish requirements inSection 14.9.6 Superficial ruptures as a result of surface imperfectionsshall not be cause for rejection.9.7 When low  D -to-  t   ratio tubulars are tested, because thestrain imposed due to geometry is unreasonably high on theinside surface at the 6 and 12 o’clock locations, cracks at theselocations shall not be cause for rejection if the  D -to- t   ratio isless than 10. 10. Hydrostatic Test 10.1 The hydrostatic test shall be applied, without leakagethrough the pipe wall, to each length of pipe except as providedin 11.2 for seamless pipe.10.2 Each length of plain-end pipe shall be hydrostaticallytested to the pressures prescribed in Table X2.2, and eachthreaded-and-coupled length shall be hydrostatically tested tothe pressures prescribed in Table X2.3. It shall be permissible,at the discretion of the manufacturer, to perform the hydrostatictest on pipe with plain ends, with threads only, or with threadsand couplings and also shall be permissible to test pipe in eithersingle lengths or multiple lengths. N OTE  5—The hydrostatic test pressures given herein are inspection testpressures, are not intended as a basis for design, and do not have any directrelationship to working pressures. 10.3 The minimum hydrostatic test pressure required tosatisfy these requirements need not exceed 2500 psi [17 200kPa] for NPS 3 [DN 80] and under, nor 2800 psi [19 300 kPa]for all sized over NPS 3 [DN 80]. This does not prohibit testingat a higher pressure at the manufacturer’s option. The hydro-static pressure shall be maintained for not less than 5 s for allsizes of seamless and electric-welded pipe. 11. Nondestructive Electric Test 11.1  Type E Pipe :11.1.1 The weld seam of each length of ERW pipe NPS 2[DN 50] and larger shall be tested with a nondestructiveelectric test as follows:11.1.2  Ultrasonic and Electromagnetic Inspection —Anyequipment utilizing the ultrasonic or electromagnetic principlesand capable of continuous and uninterrupted inspection of theweld seam shall be used. The equipment shall be checked withan applicable reference standard as described in 11.1.3 at leastonce every working turn or not more than 8 h to demonstrateits effectiveness and the inspection procedures. The equipmentshall be adjusted to produce well-defined indications when thereference standard is scanned by the inspection unit in amanner simulating the inspection of the product.11.1.3  Reference Standards —The length of the referencestandards shall be determined by the pipe manufacturer, andthey shall have the same specified diameter and thickness asthe product being inspected. Reference standards shall containmachined notches, one on the inside surface and one on theoutside surface, or a drilled hole, as shown in Fig. 1, at theoption of the pipe manufacturer. The notches shall be parallelto the weld seam, and shall be separated by a distance sufficientto produce two separate and distinguishable signals. The  1  ⁄  8 -in.[3.2-mm] hole shall be drilled through the wall and perpen-dicular to the surface of the reference standard as shown in Fig.1. Care shall be taken in the preparation of the referencestandard to ensure freedom from fins or other edge roughness,or distortion of the pipe. N OTE  6—The calibration standards defined in 11.1.3 are convenientstandards for calibration of nondestructive testing equipment. The dimen-sions of such standards are not to be construed as the minimum sizes of imperfections detectable by such equipment. 11.1.4  Acceptance Limits —Table 3 gives the height of acceptance limit signals in percent of the height of signalsproduced by reference standards. Imperfections in the weldseam that produce a signal greater than the acceptance limitsignal given in Table 3 shall be considered a defect unless thepipe manufacturer can demonstrate that the imperfection doesnot reduce the effective wall thickness beyond 12 1  ⁄  2  % of thespecified wall thickness.11.2  Seamless Pipe —As an alternative to the hydrostatic A 53/A 53M 4
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