A 500 – 99 ;QTUWMC05OQ__

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Designation: A 500 – 99 An American National Standard Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 500; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial

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  Designation: A 500 – 99  An American National Standard Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel StructuralTubing in Rounds and Shapes 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 500; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon ( e ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. 1. Scope 1.1 This specification covers cold-formed welded and seam-less carbon steel round, square, rectangular, or special shapestructural tubing for welded, riveted, or bolted construction of bridges and buildings, and for general structural purposes.1.2 This tubing is produced in both welded and seamlesssizes with a maximum periphery of 64 in. (1626 mm) and amaximum wall of 0.625 in. (15.88 mm). Grade D requires heattreatment. N OTE  1—Products manufactured to this specification may not besuitable for those applications such as dynamically loaded elements inwelded structures, etc., where low-temperature notch-toughness propertiesmay be important. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematicalconversions of the values in inch-pound units to values in SIunits.1.4 The text of this specification contains notes and foot-notes that provide explanatory material. Such notes and foot-notes, excluding those in tables and figures, do not contain anymandatory requirements. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1  ASTM Standards: A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel Products 2 A 700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and LoadingMethods for Steel Products for Domestic Shipment 3 A 751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology forChemical Analysis of Steel Products 2 A 941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Re-lated Alloys, and Ferroalloys 4 2.2  Military Standards: MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage 5 MIL-STD-163 Steel Mill Products, Preparation for Ship-ment and Storage 5 2.3  Federal Standards: Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment 5 Fed. Std. No. 183 Continuous Identification Marking of Iron and Steel Products 5 2.4  AIAG Standard: B-1 Bar Code Symbology Standard 6 3. Terminology 3.1  Definitions —For definitions of terms used in this speci-fication, refer to Terminology A 941. 4. Ordering Information 4.1 Orders for material under this specification shall containinformation concerning as many of the following items as arerequired to describe the desired material adequately:4.1.1 Quantity (feet or number of lengths),4.1.2 Name of material (cold-formed tubing),4.1.3 Method of manufacture (seamless or welded),4.1.4 Grade (A, B, C, or D),4.1.5 Size (outside diameter and nominal wall thickness forround tubing and the outside dimensions and nominal wallthickness for square and rectangular tubing),4.1.6 Length (random, multiple, specifc; see 11.3),4.1.7 End condition (see 16.3),4.1.8 Burr removal (see 16.3),4.1.9 Certification (see Section 18),4.1.10 ASTM specification designation and year of issue,4.1.11 End use,4.1.12 Special requirements, and4.1.13 Bar Coding (see 19.3). 5. Process 5.1 The steel shall be made by one or more of the followingprocesses: open-hearth, basic-oxygen, or electric-furnace.5.2 When steels of different grades are sequentially strandcast, the steel producer shall identify the resultant transition 1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel,Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.09 on Carbon Steel Tubular Products.Current edition approved March 10, 1999. Published May 1999. Originallypublished as A 500 – 64. Last previous edition A 500 – 98. 2  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.03. 3  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.05. 4  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.01. 5 Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, 700Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS. 6 Available from Automotive Industry Action Group, 26200 Lahser Road, Suite200, Southfield, MI 48034. 1 Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. NOTICE: This standard has either been superseded and replaced by a new version or discontinued.Contact ASTM International (www.astm.org) for the latest information.  material and remove it using an established procedure thatpositively separates the grades. 6. Manufacture 6.1 The tubing shall be made by a seamless or weldingprocess.6.2 Welded tubing shall be made from flat-rolled steel bythe electric-resistance-welding process. The longitudinal butt joint of welded tubing shall be welded across its thickness insuch a manner that the structural design strength of the tubingsection is assured. N OTE  2—Welded tubing is normally furnished without removal of theinside flash. 6.3 Except as required by 6.4, it shall be permissible for thetubing to be stress relieved or annealed.6.4 Grade D tubing shall be heat treated at a temperature of at least 1100° F (590° C) for one hour per inch (25.4 mm) of thickness. 7. Heat Analysis 7.1 Each heat analysis shall conform to the requirementsspecified in Table 1 for heat analysis. 8. Product Analysis 8.1 The tubing shall be capable of conforming to therequirements specified in Table 1 for product analysis.8.2 If product analyses are made, they shall be made usingtest specimens taken from two lengths of tubing from each lotof 500 lengths, or fraction thereof, or two pieces of flat-rolledstock from each lot of a corresponding quantity of flat-rolledstock. Methods and practices relating to chemical analysis shallbe in accordance with Test Methods, Practices, and Terminol-ogy A 751. Such product analyses shall conform to therequirements specified in Table 1 for product analysis.8.3 If both product analyses representing a lot fail toconform to the specified requirements, the lot shall be rejected.8.4 If only one product analysis representing a lot fails toconform to the specified requirements, product analyses shallbe made using two additional test specimens taken from the lot.Both additional product analyses shall conform to the specifiedrequirements or the lot shall be rejected. 9. Tensile Requirements 9.1 The material, as represented by the test specimen, shallconform to the requirements as to tensile properties prescribedin Table 2. 10. Flattening Test 10.1 The flattening test shall be made on round structuraltubing. A flattening test is not required for shaped structuraltubing.10.2 For welded round structural tubing, a specimen at least4 in. (102 mm) in length shall be flattened cold betweenparallel plates in three steps, with the weld located at 90° fromthe line of direction of force. During the first step, which is atest for ductility of the weld, no cracks or breaks on the insideor outside surfaces shall occur until the distance between theplates is less than two thirds of the srcinal outside diameter of the tubing. As a second step, the flattening shall be continued.During the second step, which is a test for ductility exclusiveof the weld, no cracks or breaks on the inside or outsidesurfaces, except as provided for in 10.5, shall occur until thedistance between the plates is less than one half of the srcinaloutside diameter of the tubing but is not less than five times thewall thickness of the tubing. During the third step, which is atest for soundness, the flattening shall be continued until thespecimen breaks or the opposite walls of the tubing meet.Evidence of laminated or unsound material or of incompleteweld that is revealed during the entire flattening test shall because for rejection. TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements A Element Composition, %Grades A, B andDGrade CHeatAnalysisProductAnalysisHeatAnalysisProductAnalysisCarbon, max 0.26 0.30 0.23 0.27Manganese, max . . . . . . 1.35 1.40Phosphorus, max 0.035 0.045 0.035 0.045Sulfur, max 0.035 0.045 0.035 0.045Copper, when copper steel is 0.20 0.18 0.20 0.18specified, min A Where an ellipsis (...) appears in this table, there is no requirement. TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements Round Structural TubingGrade A Grade B Grade C Grade DTensile strength, min, psi (MPa) 45 000 58 000 62 000 58 000(310) (400) (427) (400)Yield strength, min, psi (MPa) 33 000 42 000 46 000 36 000(228) (290) (317) (250)Elongation in 2 in. (50.8 mm), 25 A 23 B  21 C  23 B  min, % D  Shaped Structural TubingGrade A Grade B Grade C Grade DTensile strength, min, psi (MPa) 45 000 58 000 62 000 58 000(310) (400) (427) (400)Yield strength, min, psi (MPa) 39 000 46 000 50 000 36 000(269) (317) (345) (250)Elongation in 2 in. (50.8 mm), 25 A 23 B  21 C  23 B  min, % D  The following table gives calculated minimum values for longitudinal strip tests;where an ellipsis (...) appears in this table, there is no requirementWall thickness, in. (mm)Elongation in 2 in. (50.8 mm), min, %Grade A Grade B0.180 (4.57) . . . 230.165 (4.19) . . . 220.148 (3.76) . . . 210.134 (3.40) . . . 200.120 (3.05) 25 19.50.109 (2.77) 23.5 190.095 (2.41) 23 180.083 (2.11) 22 170.065 (1.65) 21 160.049 (1.24) 20 150.035 (0.89) 19.5 14 A Applies to specified wall thicknesses 0.120 in. (3.05 mm) and over. For wallthicknesses under 0.120 in., the minimum elongation shall be calculated by theformula: percent elongation in 2 in. = 56 t   + 17.5. B  Applies to specified wall thicknesses 0.180 in. (4.57 mm) and over. For wallthicknesses under 0.180 in., the minimum elongation shall be calculated by theformula: percent elongation in 2 in. = 61 t   + 12. C  Applies to specified wall thicknesses 0.120 in. (3.05 mm) and over. For lighterwall thicknesses, elongation shall be by agreement with the manufacturer. D  The minimum elongation values specified apply only to tests performed prior toshipment of the tubing. A 500 2  10.3 For seamless round structural tubing 2 3  ⁄  8  in. (60.3 mm)outside diameter and larger, a section not less than 2 1  ⁄  2  in. (63.5mm) in length shall be flattened cold between parallel plates intwo steps. During the first step, which is a test for ductility nocracks or breaks on the inside or outside surfaces, except asprovided for in 10.5, shall occur until the distance between theplates is less than the value of “H” calculated by the followingequation:  H   5  ~ 1  1  e ! t   /   ~ e  1  t   /   D !  (1) where:  H   = distance between flattening plates, in., e  = deformation per unit length (constant for a given gradeof steel, 0.09 for Grade A, 0.07 for Grade B, and 0.06for Grade C), t   = nominal wall thickness of tubing, in., and  D  = actual outside diameter of tubing, in.During the second step, which is a test for soundness, theflattening shall be continued until the specimen breaks or theopposite walls of the tubing meet. Evidence of laminated orunsound material that is revealed during the entire flatteningtest shall be cause for rejection.10.4 Surface imperfections not found in the test specimenbefore flattening, but revealed during the first step of theflattening test, shall be judged in accordance with Section 15.10.5 When low  D -to-  t   ratio tubulars are tested, because thestrain imposed due to geometry is unreasonably high on theinside surface at the 6 and 12 o’clock locations, cracks at theselocations shall not be cause for rejection if the  D -to- t   ratio isless than 10. 11. Permissible Variations in Dimensions 11.1  Outside Dimensions :11.1.1  Round Structural Tubing —The outside diametershall not vary more than  6 0.5 %, rounded to the nearest 0.005in. (0.13 mm), of the nominal outside diameter size specified,for nominal outside diameters 1.900 in. (48.3 mm) and smaller,and  6  0.75 % rounded to the nearest 0.005 in., of the nominaloutside diameter for nominal outside diameters 2.00 in. (50.8mm) and larger. The outside diameter measurements shall bemade at positions at least 2 in. (50.8 mm) from the ends of thetubing.11.1.2  Square and Rectangular Structural Tubing —Theoutside dimensions, measured across the flats at positions atleast 2 in. (50.8 mm) from the ends of the tubing, shall not varyfrom the specified outside dimensions by more than theapplicable amount given in Table 3, which includes an allow-ance for convexity or concavity.11.2  Wall Thickness —The minimum wall thickness at anypoint of measurement on the tubing shall be not more than10 % less than the nominal wall thickness specified. Themaximum wall thickness, excluding the weld seam of weldedtubing, shall be not more than 10 % greater than the nominalwall thickness specified. For square and rectangular tubing, thewall thickness requirements shall apply only to the centers of the flats.11.3  Length —Structural tubing is normally produced inrandom lengths 5 ft (1.5 m) and over, in multiple lengths, andin specific lengths. Refer to Section 4. When specific lengthsare ordered, the length tolerance shall be in accordance withTable 4.11.4  Straightness —The permissible variation for straight-ness of structural tubing shall be  1  ⁄  8  in. times the number of feet(10.4 mm times the number of metres) of total length dividedby 5.11.5  Squareness of Sides —For square or rectangular struc-tural tubing, adjacent sides shall be square (90°), with apermissible variation of   6 2° max.11.6  Radius of Corners —For square and rectangular struc-tural tubing, the radius of each outside corner of the sectionshall not exceed three times the nominal wall thicknessesspecified.11.7  Twist  —For square and rectangular structural tubing,the permissible variations in twist shall be as given in Table 5.Twist shall be determined by holding one end of the tubingdown on a flat surface plate, measuring the height that eachcorner on the bottom side of the tubing extends above thesurface plate near the opposite ends of the tubing, andcalculating the twist (the difference in heights of such corners),except that for heavier sections it shall be permissible to use asuitable measuring device to determine twist. Twist measure-ments shall not be taken within 2 in. (50.8 mm) of the ends of the tubing. 12. Special Shape Structural Tubing 12.1 The availability, dimensions, and tolerances of specialshape structural tubing shall be subject to inquiry and negotia-tion with the manufacturer. 13. Number of Tests 13.1 One tension test as specified in Section 15 shall bemade from a length of tubing representing each lot. TABLE 3 Outside Dimension Tolerances for Square andRectangular Structural Tubing Outside Large Flat Dimension,in. (mm)Large Flat DimensionTolerance, A plusand minus,in. (mm)2 1  ⁄  2  (63.5) or under 0.020 (0.51)Over 2 1  ⁄  2 to 3 1  ⁄  2  (63.5 to 88.9), incl 0.025 (0.64)Over 3 1  ⁄  2 to 5 1  ⁄  2  (88.9 to 139.7), incl 0.030 (0.76)Over 5 1  ⁄  2 (139.7) 0.01 times large flatdimension A Tolerances include allowance for convexity or concavity. For rectangular tubinghaving a ratio of outside large to small flat dimension less than 1.5, and for squaretubing, the tolerance on small flat dimension shall be identical to the large flatdimension tolerance. For rectangular tubing having a ratio of outside large to smallflat dimension in the range of 1.5 to 3.0 inclusive, the tolerance on small flatdimension shall be 1.5 times the large flat dimension tolerance. For rectangulartubing having a ratio of outside large to small flat dimension greater than 3.0, thetolerance on small flat dimension shall be 2.0 times the large flat dimensiontolerance. TABLE 4 Length Tolerances for Specific Lengths of StructuralTubing 22 ft (6.7 m)and UnderOver 22 to 44ft (6.7 to13.4 m), inclOver Under Over UnderLength tolerance for specificlength, in. (mm)1  /  2(12.7)1  /  4(6.4)3  /  4(19.0)1  /  4(6.4) A 500 3  13.2 The flattening test, as specified in Section 10, shall bemade on one length of round tubing from each lot.13.3 The term “lot” shall apply to all tubes of the samenominal size and wall thickness that are produced from thesame heat of steel. 14. Retests 14.1 If the results of the mechanical tests representing anylot fail to conform to the applicable requirements specified inSections 9 and 10, the lot shall be rejected or retested usingadditional tubing of double the srcinal number from the lot.The lot shall be acceptable if the results of all such retestsrepresenting the lot conform to the specified requirements.14.2 If one or both of the retests specified in 14.1 fail toconform to the applicable requirements specified in Sections 9and 10, the lot shall be rejected or, subsequent to the manu-facturer heat treating, reworking, or otherwise eliminating thecondition responsible for the failure, the lot shall be treated asa new lot and tested accordingly. 15. Test Methods 15.1 Tension test specimens shall conform to the applicablerequirements of Test Methods and Definitions A 370, AnnexA2.15.2 Tension test specimens shall be full–size longitudinaltest specimens or longitudinal strip test specimens. For weldedtubing, any longitudinal strip test specimens shall be takenfrom a location at least 90° from the weld and shall be preparedwithout flattening in the gage length. Longitudinal strip testspecimens shall have all burrs removed. Tension test specimensshall not contain surface imperfections that would interferewith proper determination of the tensile properties.15.3 The yield strength corresponding to an offset of 0.2 %of the gage length or to a total extension under load of 0.5 %of the gage length shall be determined. 16. Inspection 16.1 All tubing shall be inspected at the place of manufac-ture to ensure conformance to the requirements of this speci-fication.16.2 All tubing shall be free from defects and shall have aworkmanlike finish.16.2.1 Surface imperfections shall be classed as defectswhen their depth reduces the remaining wall thickness to lessthan 90 % of the specified nominal wall thickness. It shall bepermissible for defects having a depth not in excess of 33 1  ⁄  3  %of the nominal wall thickness to be repaired by welding,subject to the following conditions:16.2.1.1 The defect shall be completely removed by chip-ping or grinding to sound metal,16.2.1.2 The repair weld shall be made using a low-hydrogen welding process, and16.2.1.3 The projecting weld metal shall be removed toproduce a workmanlike finish.16.2.2 Surface imperfections such as handling marks, lightdie or roll marks, or shallow pits are not considered defectsproviding the imperfections are removable within the mini-mum wall permitted. The removal of such surface imperfec-tions is not required. Welded tubing shall be free of protrudingmetal on the outside surface of the weld seam.16.3 Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order,structural tubing shall be furnished with square cut ends, withthe burr held to a minimum. When so specified in the purchaseorder, the burr shall be removed on the outside diameter, insidediameter, or both. 17. Rejection 17.1 It shall be permissible for the purchaser to inspecttubing received from the manufacturer and reject any tubingthat does not meet the requirements of this specification, basedupon the inspection and test methods outlined herein. Thepurchaser shall notify the manufacturer of any tubing that hasbeen rejected, and the disposition of such tubing shall besubject to agreement between the manufacturer and the pur-chaser.17.2 It shall be permissible for the purchaser to set aside anytubing that is found in fabrication or installation within thescope of this specification to be unsuitable for the intended enduse, based on the requirements of this specification. Thepurchaser shall notify the manufacturer of any tubing that hasbeen set aside. Such tubing shall be subject to mutual investi-gation as to the nature and severity of the deficiency and theforming or installation, or both, conditions involved. Thedisposition of such tubing shall be subject to agreementbetween the manufacturer and the purchaser. 18. Certification 18.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, themanufacturer shall furnish to the purchaser a certificate of compliance stating that the product was manufactured,sampled, tested, and inspected in accordance with this speci-fication and any other requirements designated in the purchaseorder or contract, and was found to meet all such requirements.Certificates of compliance shall include the specification num-ber and year of issue.18.2 When specified in the purchase order or contract, themanufacturer shall furnish to the purchaser test reports for theproduct shipped that contain the heat analyses and the results of the tension tests required by this specification and the purchaseorder or contract. Test reports shall include the specificationnumber and year of issue.18.3 A signature or notarization is not required on certifi-cates of compliance or test reports; however, the documentsshall clearly identify the organization submitting them. Not-withstanding the absence of a signature, the organization TABLE 5 Twist Tolerances for Square and RectangularStructural Tubing Specified Dimension ofLongest Side, in. (mm)Maximum Twist inthe First 3 ft (1 m)and in eachadditional 3 ftin. mm1 1  ⁄  2  (38.1) and under 0.050 1.39Over 1 1  ⁄  2  to 2 1  ⁄  2  (38.1 to 63.5), incl 0.062 1.72Over 2 1  ⁄  2  to 4 (63.5 to 101.6), incl 0.075 2.09Over 4 to 6 (101.6 to 152.4), incl 0.087 2.42Over 6 to 8 (152.4 to 203.2), incl 0.100 2.78Over 8 (203.3) 0.112 3.11 A 500 4
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