– 2012 Assessment Schedule

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NCEA Level 2 Home Economics (91300) 2012 — page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule – 2012 Home Economics: Analyse the relationship between well-being, food choices…

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NCEA Level 2 Home Economics (91300) 2012 — page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule – 2012 Home Economics: Analyse the relationship between well-being, food choices and determinants of health (91300) Assessment Criteria Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence Analyse involves explaining how well-being is Analyse in depth involves giving detailed examples Comprehensively analyse involves explaining in affected by food choices and the determinants of to show how well-being is affected by food choices detail the interconnections between well-being, food health. and the determinants of health. choices, and the determinants of health, and how these affect individuals and society. Evidence Statement Expected Coverage The candidate discusses the three named determinants of health: (1) Access to healthy food – a nutritious diet is essential for good health. Inadequate food, poor quality food, and excess food can lead to a range of diseases. A lack of transport can prevent access to fresh food markets and supermarkets, as well as economics (being able to afford fruit and vegetables). People on a low income (young families, the unemployed, and the elderly) are the groups less likely to eat well. (2) Social gradient– this includes a person’s access to money that allows them to buy adequate and quality food, have housing, and unlimited access to medical treatment. The higher up the gradient, the better health people generally have (better education, more secure job, better family life). (3) Social support– helps people feel cared for and valued. Supportive relationships provide both emotional and practical help. Provides community social cohesion and access to a variety of community organisations. Question Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence (a) The candidate explains the impacts of EACH Any TWO of: Any TWO of: (i)–(iii) of the THREE determinants of health on  Explains (or describes, or  Explains, with detailed people’s food choices. considers) the impacts of TWO examples, the impacts of TWO determinants of health on determinants of health on The candidate needs to give detailed people’s food choices. people’s food choices. examples of the impact of the determinant of health on people’s food choices. See Appendix A for possible responses. NCEA Level 2 Home Economics (91300) 2012 — page 2 of 7 (iv) The candidate chooses ONE of the three  Explains (or describes, or  Explains, with detailed  Explains, with detailed examples, determinants of health from (a) to (c) and considers) the impact of ONE examples, the impacts of TWO the impacts of THREE explains how the determinant impacts on determinant of health on determinants of health on determinants of health on people’s well-being. people’s well-being. people’s well-being. people’s well-being.  At least TWO dimensions of  At least TWO dimensions of  At least THREE dimensions of See Appendix B for possible responses. well-being are explained. well-being are explained, with well-being are explained, with detailed examples given. detailed examples given. (b) The candidate states / considers an Explains (or describes, or Explains, with detailed examples, Explains, with detailed examples, interconnection between the determinants. considers) an interconnection (link) how an interconnection between how the interconnections between between at least TWO TWO determinants of health the THREE determinants of health determinants of health. affects New Zealanders AND / OR affect New Zealanders AND New See Appendix C for possible responses. New Zealand society as a whole. Zealand society as a whole. NCEA Level 2 Home Economics (91300) 2012 — page 3 of 7 N1 N2 A3 A4 M5 M6 E7 E8 States / describes / States / describes / Explains / describes / Explains / describes / Explains, with detailed Explains, with detailed Discusses, with Discusses, with considers an impact of considers an impact of considers an impact of considers an impact of examples, the impact examples, the impact detailed examples, detailed examples, ONE determinant of ONE determinant of TWO determinants of TWO determinants of of TWO determinants of TWO determinants how the how the health on people’s food health on people’s food health on people’s food health on people’s food of health on people’s of health on people’s interconnections interconnections choices. choices AND choices AND choices AND food choices AND food choices AND between TWO between THREE well-being. well-being. well-being. well-being. well-being. determinants of health determinants of health At least TWO At least TWO At least TWO At least TWO relate to the food relate to the food dimensions of dimensions of dimensions of dimensions of choices AND choices AND well-being are well-being are well-being are well-being are well-being of New well-being of New described or given. explained, with detailed explained, with detailed explained, with detailed Zealanders AND New Zealanders AND New examples given. examples given. examples given. Zealand society as a Zealand society as a whole. whole. AND / OR AND / OR AND / OR At least THREE At least THREE The interconnections The interconnections How the dimensions of dimensions of between at least ONE between at least TWO interconnections well-being are well-being are determinant of health determinants of health between TWO discussed, with discussed, with and well-being is and well-being are determinants of health detailed examples detailed examples considered. considered. affects New given. given. Zealanders and / or New Zealand society as a whole are explained. N0/ = No response; no relevant evidence. Judgement Statement Achievement Achievement Not Achieved Achievement with Merit with Excellence Score range 0–2 3–4 5–6 7–8 NCEA Level 2 Home Economics (91300) 2012 — page 4 of 7 Appendix A – (a)–(iii) (i) Eg: Access to healthy food (not limited to these examples) Achievement (Analyse) A lack of adequate income, transport, and education, can prevent people having access to healthy food. If people have access to healthy food, and understand what food is important to maintain health, they have better overall health. People on a higher income can provide a variety of food for their families, and can access supermarkets and markets to buy fresh ingredients to make meals. They also have access to transport. People on a limited budget, or with disabilities, may struggle for transport to supermarkets (where food is cheaper than the dairy). People living in remote or very cold areas have difficulty accessing fresh fruit in the winter months, and it is expensive to buy, eg citrus fruit in the South Island is expensive, whereas it grows freely in the North Island, and is therefore cheaper to buy. (ii) Eg: Social gradient (not limited to these examples) Achievement (Analyse) The amount of money people have can affect how much they can spend on food. Many families on a limited income are forced to choose low-cost foods like budget white bread, potato chips, fizzy drink, and two-minute noodles for their children because they need to provide food that fills their family up, rather than more nutritious alternatives that are more expensive, such as fruit and vegetables, or milk. For example, a 2.25 litre bottle of cola can cost approximately $1.99 on special whereas a 2 litre bottle of milk can cost close to $5. People on higher incomes can afford to buy fresh fruit and vegetables all year round and can choose high quality food that provides a variety of nutrients to keep the body healthy. (iii) Eg: Social support (not limited to these examples) Achievement (Analyse) A strong community with organisations like food banks and church groups that help when required, provides people in need with a choice of food that can help offer the necessary nutrients to maintain good health. A family / friends network is vital to help people in the community and can provide a source of free food for neighbours and family from gardens and trees. NCEA Level 2 Home Economics (91300) 2012 — page 5 of 7 Appendix B – (a) (iv) Eg: Social gradient (not limited to these examples) Achievement (Analyse) Financial stress due to living at the lower end of the social gradient can contribute to, or result in, unhealthy food choices. Many of the cheaper, processed foods tend to be high in saturated fat, salt, and sugar, and may contain additives. A high intake of these foods can contribute to weight gain, reduced energy levels, and poor skin health in the short-term, as well as micronutrient deficiencies such as iron deficiency (presenting itself as poor concentration at school / work, fatigue, lower resistance to colds and infections). In the longer-term, lifestyle / diet-related diseases such as obesity, hypertension, anaemia, or osteoporosis, may develop. Poor health can cause a person to withdraw from social contact and leaves them vulnerable to mental illness. Merit (Analyse, in depth) As above and gives detailed examples. Foods high in saturated fat and salt, like potato chips are cheap to buy (approximately $1.99 for a big packet), and coke is cheaper than milk, so if people do not have a lot of money, they tend to buy cheaper food as they are more concerned with preventing hunger than the nutritional value. Fruit and fresh vegetables can be expensive compared with takeaways. For example, a family pack of KFC costs $24.00 on special, and that can feed a family of 4 / 5, whereas buying a chicken and vegetables can cost a lot more. Not having a lot of money can also isolate people from others, as the poor cannot afford to socialise when they can’t afford the food to take to a barbeque, so they don’t end up going. It can cause stress within the family and a feeling of helplessness, which can lead to depression and addiction. This affects their spiritual well-being as they feel that they have no self-worth. NCEA Level 2 Home Economics (91300) 2012 — page 6 of 7 Appendix C – (b) Eg: Interconnections of social gradient, social support, and access to healthy food (not limited to these examples) Achievement (Analyse) People who are financially secure can afford to buy what they need in order to live a comfortable life and have access to good quality food. This means they are less likely to suffer from stress about not being able to support and provide food for their families. People and / or families can feel stressed because they do not have enough money to provide adequate and nutritious food for the family. This means that the family may not eat enough fruit and / or vegetables, and therefore are not getting enough nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. Merit (Analyse, in depth) As above and gives detailed examples. People who do not have a lot of money are lower on the social gradient, and may choose foods that are cheap, yet filling, like budget white bread and / or hot chips, because this is a cheap way to feed a family, rather than cooking a nutritious meal using lean meat and fresh vegetables, which will provide a variety of nutrients, but can be more expensive. People become stressed about providing meals for their families due to a lack of money or time; therefore cheap takeaways are an easy option. However, these foods are often high in fat, salt, and sugar, and are contributing to obesity, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes. Eating these foods can also affect the family’s mental and emotional well-being because they are not getting the essential nutrients they need (eg iron), which causes them to be tired and depressed. Families who have less money can become socially isolated because they cannot afford to go out with friends, or participate in community activities, or ask people round for dinner. This can negatively affect their mental and emotional well-being because it makes them feel unhappy and left out. This in turn can cause stress and may lead to addiction to alcohol, drugs, or gambling. Candidate is not limited to this example. Excellence (Comprehensively analyse) As above and need to give interconnections between the THREE determinants of health. A lack of transport (not owning a car, or access to limited public transport) impacts a person’s food choices and eating patterns because it limits their access to a variety of food stores, large supermarkets, and / or markets, especially if the person lives in an isolated area. They may not be able to afford to run and maintain a car (ie pay for the warrant and registration, and petrol), resulting in them having to rely on the food available within walking distance, or having to rely on public transport. They will be likely to buy cheap takeaways nearby, or that are delivered to the door (eg pizza). A lack of transport adds stress to a family, because they cannot benefit from the low prices and specials at the bigger supermarkets, and have to rely on local dairies, which have a limited variety of food and charge more for their products. This in turn creates economic stress, as more money has to be spent on a smaller amount food. Hence, this stress (due to financial constraints and lack of transport) may lead to increased consumption of quick, time-saving, ready-made meals and snacks, made from processed ingredients. These foods are often high in fat, salt, and sugar, which can lead to health problems. People who have a strong social support network and are involved in their own community and / or have good family support can survive on little money, as they can share resources and are looked after. They tend to be happy and do not suffer from mental and emotional issues such as stress or depression, and can therefore contribute more positively to society. People low on the social gradient who have no social support, have limited access to healthy food through economic and / or NCEA Level 2 Home Economics (91300) 2012 — page 7 of 7 transport or geographical isolation, can suffer from lack of self-worth, which in turn affects their mental and emotional well-being. They are often lacking in vital nutrients or suffering malnourishment, as they cannot access a variety of food. This affects their physical well-being, including a lack of iron leading to anaemia, and children having learning difficulties, or an over-consumption of fast foods, white bread, potato chips, hot chips, and fizzy drinks that are all cheap, nutrient-poor foods, but are filling. Over-consumption of these foods increases the chances of people developing health-related diseases like obesity (too much sugar, fat, carbohydrates), which can lead to heart disease, Type 2 diabetes (obesity and too much sugar), and high blood pressure (too much salt from processed foods and fast foods). Community and public health agencies’ costs for education, treatment, and the management of physical and emotional illnesses, resulting from excess intake of fat, sugar, or salt, continue to rise. Government-funded public health will require a greater proportion of funding from the taxes paid by all employed New Zealanders as the incidence of long-term health issues related to high fat, sugar, or salt intake, continues to rise. Shifting more funding to the health sector for healthy eating programmes and treatment of diet-related illnesses, means less funding is available for other important areas such as transport, education, and housing. Nutrient-related diseases cost society vast amounts of money per year. Hospitals need to have larger beds and expensive equipment to deal with larger people. They also need more staff to move obese people. There are also associated costs in the time people have off work due to their mental and physical illnesses / diseases, and impacts on families and children, which can impact on society (cost of support agencies, schools).
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